Acrylamide formation in carbohydrate-rich food powders consumed in Korea

Main Article Content

Inseon Hwang
Hoonjeong Kwon


acrylamide, asparagine, Maillard reaction, monosaccharides


Acrylamide formation in carbohydrate-rich botanical powders consumed in Korea was investigated in this study. Free asparagine and monosaccharide contents were measured as the chief precursors to acrylamide formation. The highest levels of acrylamide were detected in heated lotus roots, followed by potatoes, Jerusalem artichokes, and yams. Tubers and rhizomes contained more asparagine than sugar and had a high ratio of free asparagine to free amino acids. Acrylamide was formed preferably when sugars were the limiting factor, rather than when the same amount of asparagine was limited. This study demonstrated the potential for several botanical powders in the Korean diet to be contaminated by acrylamide.

Abstract 452 | PDF Downloads 465 HTML Downloads 259 XML Downloads 14


Balagiannis, D.P., Mottram, D.S., Higley, J., Smith, G., Wedzicha, B.L. and Parker, J.K., 2019. Kinetic modelling of acrylamide formation during the finish-frying of french fries with variable maltose content. Food Chemistry. 284: 236–244. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.01.075

Becalski, A., Lau, B.P.Y., Lewis, D. and Seaman, S.W., 2003. Acrylamide in foods: occurrence, sources, and modelling. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51(3): 802–808. 10.1021/jf020889y

Bell, L.N., 2020. Moisture effects on food’s chemical stability. In: Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V., Fontana, A.J., Jr, Schmidt, S.J. and Labuza, T.P. (eds.) Water activity in foods: fundamentals and applications. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 227–253.

Bobrivnyk, L., Remeslo, N., Stepanets, L. and Fedorenchenko, L., 2017. Chemické složení hlíz vybraných odrůd topinamburu. Listy Cukrovarnicke a Reparske. 133(3): 104–107.

Bråthen, E. and Knutsen, S.H., 2005. Effect of temperature and time on the formation of acrylamide in starch-based and cereal model systems, flat breads and bread. Food Chemistry. 92(4): 693–700. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.08.030

Ciesarova, Z., Kiss, E. and Kolek, E., 2006. Study of factors affecting acrylamide levels in model systems. Czech Journal of Food Sciences. 24(3): 133. 10.17221/3308-CJFS

Corradini, M.G. and Peleg, M., 2006. Linear and non-linear kinetics in the synthesis and degradation of acrylamide in foods and model systems. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 46(6): 489–517. 10.1080/10408390600758280

Curtis, T.Y., Powers, S.J., Balagiannis, D., Elmore, J.S., Mottram, D.S., Parry, M.A. and Halford, N.G., 2010. Free amino acids and sugars in rye grain: implications for acrylamide formation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(3): 1959–1969. 10.1021/jf903577b

Davies, A., 1977. The free amino acids of tubers of potato varieties grown in England and Ireland. Potato Research. 20(1): 9–21. 10.1007/BF02362297

De Wilde, T., De Meulenaer, B., Mestdagh, F., Govaert, Y., Vandeburie, S., Ooghe, W. and Calus, A., 2005. Influence of storage practices on acrylamide formation during potato frying. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53(16): 6550–6557. 10.1021/jf050650s

Duan, Y., Kim, G., Joung, S. and Kim, H., 2016. Nutritional evaluation of Korean yam (Dioscorea batatas DECNE.). Journal of Korean Applied Science and Technology. 33(2): 391–400. 10.12925/jkocs.2016.33.2.391

Edo, K., Hashimoto, T., Nishio, S., Sawada, E. and Nakagawa, H., 2016. Free amino acid contents of roots of the lotus cultivars “Bicchu” and “Lotus” grown in Tokushima prefecture. Journal for the Integrated Study of Dietary Habits. 27: 221–224. 10.2740/jisdh.27.3_221

Elmore, J.S., Koutsidis, G., Dodson, A.T., Mottram, D.S. and Wedzicha, B.L., 2005. Measurement of acrylamide and its precursors in potato, wheat, and rye model systems. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 53(4): 1286–1293. 10.1021/jf048557b

European Commission (EC), 2002. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) on new findings regarding the presence of acrylamide in food. EC, Brussel.

Friedman, M. 2003. Chemistry, biochemistry, and safety of acrylamide. A review. Journal of AgricUltural and Food Chemistry. 51(16): 4504–4526. 10.1021/jf030204+

Gökmen, V., Kocadağlı, T., Göncüoğlu, N. and Mogol, B.A., 2012. Model studies on the role of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural in acrylamide formation from asparagine. Food Chemistry. 132(1): 168–174. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.048

Granvogl, M., Wieser, H., Koehler, P., Von Tucher, S. and Schieberle, P. 2007. Influence of sulfur fertilization on the amounts of free amino acids in wheat. Correlation with baking properties as well as with 3-aminopropionamide and acrylamide generation during baking. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55(10): 4271–4277. 10.1021/jf070262l

Halford, N.G., Muttucumaru, N., Powers, S.J., Gillatt, P.N., Hartley, L., Elmore, J.S. and Mottram, D.S., 2012. Concentrations of free amino acids and sugars in nine potato varieties: effects of storage and relationship with acrylamide formation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60(48): 12044–12055. 10.1021/jf3037566

Harrigan, G.G., Stork, L.G., Riordan, S.G., Ridley, W.P., MacIsaac, S., Halls, S.C. and Wen, L., 2007a. Metabolite analyses of grain from maize hybrids grown in the United States under drought and watered conditions during the 2002 field season. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55(15): 6169–6176. 10.1021/jf070493s

Harrigan, G.G., Stork, L.G., Riordan, S.G., Reynolds, T.L., Ridley, W.P., Masucci, J.D. and Smith, R.G., 2007b. Impact of genetics and environment on nutritional and metabolite components of maize grain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55(15): 6177–6185. 10.1021/jf070494k

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 1994. Acrylamide. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 60. IARC, Lyon.

Jeong, H., Hwang, S. and Kwon, H., 2020. Survey for acrylamide in processed foods from Korean market and individual exposure estimation using a non-parametric probabilistic model. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A. 37(6): 916–930.. 10.1080/19440049.2020.1746410

Jun, H., Yoo, S., Song, G. and Kim, Y., 2017. Effect of particle size of naked oat flours on physicochemical and antioxidant property. Korean Journal of Food Preservation. 24(7): 965–974. 10.11002/kjfp.2017.24.7.965

Jung, B. and Shin, T., 2016. Food components and antioxidant activities of dried Jerusalem artichoke with white and purple colors. Journal of Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. 45(8): 1114–1121. 10.3746/jkfn.2016.45.8.1114

Kamara, J.S., Konishi, S., Sasanuma, T. and Abe, T., 2010. Variation in free amino acid profile among some rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. Breeding Science. 60(1): 46–54. 10.1270/jsbbs.60.46

Kang, O., 2007. Comparison of free amino acids in soybean paste (Doenjang) by different extraction solvents and analytical methods. Korean Journal of Food Cookery Science. 23(1): 150–155.

Kim, H. and Park, E., 2014. Change of amino acids contents of Gastrodia elata Blume with harvest times and seed tuber. Journal of Plant Biotechnology. 41(4): 229–235. 10.5010/JPB.2014.41.4.229

Knol, J.J., Linssen, J.P. and Van Boekel, M.A., 2010. Unravelling the kinetics of the formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction of fructose and asparagine by multi-response modelling. Food Chemistry. 120(4): 1047–1057. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.11.049

Koutsidis, G., Simons, S.P., Thong, Y.H., Haldoupis, Y., Lazaro, J.M., Wedzicha, B.L. and Mottram, D.S., 2009. Investigations on the effect of amino acids on acrylamide, pyrazines, and Michael addition products in model systems. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57(19): 9011–9015. 10.1021/jf9014763

Lea, P.J., Sodek, L., Parry, M.A., Shewry, P.R. and Halford, N.G., 2007. Asparagine in plants. Annals of Applied Biology. 150(1): 1–26. 10.1111/j.1744-7348.2006.00104.x

Lingnert, H., Grivas, S., Jägerstad, M., Skog, K., Törnqvist, M. and Åman, P., 2002. Acrylamide in food: mechanisms of formation and influencing factors during heating of foods. Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition. 46(4): 159–172. 10.1080/110264802762225273

Michalak, J., Gujska, E., Czarnowska, M., Klepacka, J. and Nowak, F., 2016. Effect of storage on acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural contents in selected processed plant products with long shelf-life. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 71(1): 115–122. 10.1007/s11130-015-0523-4

Montesano, D., Cossignani, L., Giua, L., Urbani, E., Simonetti, M.S. and Blasi, F., 2016. A simple HPLC-ELSD method for sugar analysis in Goji berry. Journal of Chemistry. 2016: 1–5. 10.1155/2016/6271808

Mustafa, A., Åman, P., Andersson, R. and Kamal-Eldin, A., 2007. Analysis of free amino acids in cereal products. Food Chemistry. 105(1): 317–324. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.11.044

Nguyen, H.T., Peters, R.J. and Van Boekel, M.A., 2016. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type. Food Chemistry. 192: 575–585. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.07.016

Rydberg, P., Eriksson, S., Tareke, E., Karlsson, P., Ehrenberg, L. and Törnqvist, M., 2005. Factors that influence the acrylamide content of heated foods. In: Friedman, M. and Mottram, D. (eds.) Chemistry and safety of acrylamide in food, Vol. 561. Springer, Boston, MA, pp. 317–328.

Stadler, R.H., Blank, I., Varga, N., Robert, F., Hau, J., Guy, P.A. and Riediker, S., 2002. Acrylamide from Maillard reaction products. Nature. 419(6906): 449–450. 10.1038/419449a

Tareke, E., Rydberg, P., Karlsson, P., Eriksson, S. and Törnqvist, M., 2002. Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 50(17): 4998–5006. 10.1021/jf020302