Main Article Content
rice bran, ultrasound, optimisation, antioxidant, antiproliferative
In this study, it was aimed to increase added value of rice bran which is a by-product of paddy processing. Optimisation of ultrasound assisted extraction produced the highest rice bran protein yield (39.85%) with the parameters as solid/liquid ratio of 0.43, power of 48.25% amplitude, and ultrasound application time of 29.89 min. Based on the optimised solid/liquid ratio and time, antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of protein isolates treated with different level of ultrasound power were determined. Total antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC), metal chelating activity and the effects on HepG2 cytotoxicity of rice bran protein isolates were evaluated. The highest values of TEAC (17.73%), DPPH (63.61%), TPC (297.43 mg GAE/mg), and metal chelating activity (55.34%) were obtained from samples treated with 100% ultrasound power. Th results of the study showed that the ultrasound power had significant effect (P<0.05) on TPC, metal chelating activity, and DPPH scavenging activity of rice bran proteins.
American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS), 1997. Official methods and recommended practices. AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, USA.
Arab, F., Alemzadeh, I. and Maghsoudi, V., 2011. Determination of antioxidant component and activity of rice bran extract. Scientia Iranica 18: 1402-1406.
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC), 2005. Official methods of analysis. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
Bagchi, T.B., Sharma, S. and Chattopadhyay, K., 2016. Development of NIRS models to predict protein and amylose content of brown rice and proximate compositions of rice bran. Food Chemistry 191: 21-27.
Bermúdez-Aguirre, M.T. and Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V., 2011. Ultrasound applications in food processing. In: Feng, H., Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V. and Weiss, J. (eds.) Ultrasound technologies for food and bioprocessing. Springer, New York, NY, USA, pp. 65-105.
Butsat, S. and Siriamornpun, S., 2010. Antioxidant capacities and phenolic compounds of the husk, bran and endosperm of Thai rice. Food Chemistry 119: 606-613.
Carbone, K. and Mencarelli, F., 2015. Influence of short-term postharvest ozone treatments in nitrogen or air atmosphere on the metabolic response of white wine grapes. Food and Bioprocess Technology 8: 1739-1749.
Chanput, W., Theerakulkait, C. and Nakai, S., 2009. Antioxidative properties of partially purified barley hordein, rice bran protein fractions and their hydrolysates. Journal of Cereal Science 49: 422-428.
Chen, H., Muramoto, K., Yamauchi, F., Fujimoto, K. and Nokihara, K., 1998. Want properties of histidine-containing peptides designed from peptide fragments found in the digests of a soybean protein. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46: 49-53.
Chotimarkorn, C., Benjakul, S. and Silalai, N., 2008. Antioxidant components and properties of five long-grained rice bran extracts from commercial available cultivars in Thailand. Food Chemistry 111: 636-641.
Dinis, T.C.P., Madeira, V.M.C. and Almeida, L.M., 1994. Action of phenolic derivatives (acetaminophen, salicylate, and 5-aminosalicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 315: 161-169.
Elias, R.J., Kellerby, S.S. and Decker, E.A., 2008. Antioxidant activity of proteins and peptides. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 48: 430-441.
Farahmandfar, R., Asnaashari, M. and Sayyad, R., 2015. Comparison antioxidant activity of Tarom Mahali rice bran extracted from different extraction methods and its effect on canola oil stabilization. Journal of Food Science and Technology 52: 6385-6394.
Forster, G.M., Raina, K., Kumar, A., Kumar, S., Agarwal, R., Chen, M.-H., Bauer, J.E., McClung, A.M. and Ryan, E.P., 2013. Rice varietal differences in bioactive bran components for inhibition of colorectal cancer cell growth. Food Chemistry 141: 1545-1552.
Hromádková, Z., Košt’álová, Z. and Ebringerová, A., 2008. Comparison of conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolics-rich heteroxylans from wheat bran. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 15: 1062-1068.
Hu, H., Wu, J., Li-Chan, E.C.Y., Zhu, L., Zhang, F., Xu, X., Fan, G., Wang, L., Huang, X. and Pan, S., 2013. Effects of ultrasound on structural and physical properties of soy protein isolate (SPI) dispersions. Food Hydrocolloids 30: 647-655.
Inglett, G.E., Chen, D., Berhow, M. and Lee, S., 2011. Antioxidant activity of commercial buckwheat flours and their free and bound phenolic compositions. Food Chemistry 125: 923-929.
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), 1987. Nomenclature of tetrapyrroles. Recommendations of the Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (Jcbn). European Journal of Biochemistry 178: 277-328.
Kannan, A., Hettiarachchy, N. and Narayan, S., 2009. Colon and breast anti-cancer effects of peptide hydrolysates derived from rice bran. Open Bioactive Compounds Journal 2: 17-20.
Kawamura, Y., Muramoto, M., Waldron, K., Johnson, I. and Fenwick, G., 1993. Anti-tumorigenic and immunoactive protein and peptide factors in foodstuffs. 2. Anti-tumorigenic factors in rice bran. Food and Cancer Prevention: 331-335.
Kim, S.P., Kang, M.Y., Nam, S.H. and Friedman, M., 2012. Dietary rice bran component ?-oryzanol inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 56: 935-944.
Leardkamolkarn, V., Thongthep, W., Suttiarporn, P., Kongkachuichai, R., Wongpornchai, S. and Wanavijitr, A., 2011. Chemopreventive properties of the bran extracted from a newly-developed Thai rice: the riceberry. Food Chemistry 125: 978-985.
Lee, Y.S., 2005. Role of NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species in the mechanism of apoptosis induced by phenolic acids in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Archives of Pharmacal Research 28: 1183-1189.
Liu, Q., Kong, B., Xiong, Y.L. and Xia, X., 2010. Antioxidant activity and functional properties of porcine plasma protein hydrolysate as influenced by the degree of hydrolysis. Food Chemistry 118: 403-410.
Louis, K.S. and Siegel, A.C., 2011. Cell viability analysis using trypan blue: manual and automated methods. In: Stoddart, J.M. (ed.) Mammalian cell viability: methods and protocols. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA, pp. 7-12.
Mariod, A.A., Adamu, H.A., Ismail, M. and Ismail, N., 2010. Antioxidative effects of stabilized and unstabilized defatted rice bran methanolic extracts on the stability of rice bran oil under accelerated conditions. Grasas y Aceites 61: 409-415.
Mustafa, B. and Ertan, A., 2008. Pirinç kepe?inin fonksiyonel etkileri. In: Proceedings of the 10. G?da Kongresi, May 21-23, 2008, Erzurum, Turkey, p. 459. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/y6ul2sfy
Packer, L., Weber, S.U. and Rimbach, G., 2001. Molecular aspects of ?-tocotrienol antioxidant action and cell signalling. Journal of Nutrition 131: 369S-373S
Premakumara, G., Abeysekera, W., Ratnasooriya, W., Chandrasekharan, N. and Bentota, A., 2013. Antioxidant, anti-amylase and anti-glycation potential of brans of some Sri Lankan traditional and improved rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties. Journal of Cereal Science 58: 451-456.
Rai, S., Wahile, A., Mukherjee, K., Saha, B.P. and Mukherjee, P.K., 2006. Antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus) seeds. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104: 322-327.
Revilla, E., Santa-María, C., Miramontes, E., Candiracci, M., Rodríguez-Morgado, B., Carballo, M., Bautista, J., Castaño, A. and Parrado, J., 2013. Antiproliferative and immunoactivatory ability of an enzymatic extract from rice bran. Food Chemistry 136: 526-531.
Sagdic, O., Silici, S. and Ekici, L., 2013. Evaluation of the phenolic content, antiradical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of different floral sources of honey. International Journal of Food Properties 16: 658-666.
Saleem, M., Kim, H.J., Ali, M.S. and Lee, Y.S., 2005. An update on bioactive plant lignans. Natural Product Reports 22: 696-716.
Sánchez-Moreno, C., Larrauri, J.A. and Saura-Calixto, F., 1998. A procedure to measure the antiradical efficiency of polyphenols. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 76: 270-276.
Santa-María, C., Revilla, E., Miramontes, E., Bautista, J., García-Martínez, A., Romero, E., Carballo, M. and Parrado, J., 2013. Protection against free radicals (UVB irradiation) of a water-soluble enzymatic extract from rice bran. Study using human keratinocyte monolayer and reconstructed human epidermis. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48: 83-88.
Saunders, R., 1990. The properties of rice bran as a foodstuff. Cereal Foods World 35: 632-636.
Setyaningsih, W., Saputro, I.E., Palma, M. and Barroso, C.G., 2017. Optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of tryptophan and its derivatives from rice (Oryza sativa) grains through a response surface methodology. Journal of Cereal Science 75: 192-197.
Shao, Y., Xu, F., Sun, X., Bao, J. and Beta, T., 2014. Identification and quantification of phenolic acids and anthocyanins as antioxidants in bran, embryo and endosperm of white, red and black rice kernels (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Cereal Science 59: 211-218.
Shoemaker, M., Hamilton, B., Dairkee, S.H., Cohen, I. and Campbell, M.J., 2005. In vitro anticancer activity of twelve Chinese medicinal herbs. Phytotherapy Research 19: 649-651.
Tang, S., Hettiarachchy, N.S. and Shellhammer, T.H., 2002. Protein extraction from heat-stabilized defatted rice bran. 1. Physical processing and enzyme treatments. Journal Of Agricultural And Food Chemistry 50: 7444-7448.
Velioglu, Y., Mazza, G., Gao, L. and Oomah, B., 1998. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46: 4113-4117.
Wang, M., Hettiarachchy, N.S., Qi, M., Burks, W. and Siebenmorgen, T., 1999. Preparation and functional properties of rice bran protein isolate. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47: 411-416.
Wattanasiritham, L., Theerakulkait, C., Wickramasekara, S., Maier, C.S. and Stevens, J.F., 2016. Isolation and identification of antioxidant peptides from enzymatically hydrolyzed rice bran protein. Food Chemistry 192: 156-162.
Wu, J., Lin, L. and Chau, F.-T., 2001. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of ginseng saponins from ginseng roots and cultured ginseng cells. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 8: 347-352.
Xie, Z., Huang, J., Xu, X. and Jin, Z., 2008. Antioxidant activity of peptides isolated from alfalfa leaf protein hydrolysate. Food Chemistry 111: 370-376.
Xu, Z., Hua, N. and Godber, J.S., 2001. Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and ?-oryzanol components from rice bran against cholesterol oxidation accelerated by 2, 2’-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 2077-2081.
Yang, X., Li, Y., Li, S., Oladejo, A.O., Wang, Y., Huang, S., Zhou, C., Ye, X., Ma, H. and Duan, Y., 2018. Effects of ultrasound-assisted ?-amylase degradation treatment with multiple modes on the extraction of rice protein. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 40: 890-899.
Yasukawa, K., Akihisa, T., Kimura, Y., Tamura, T. and Takido, M., 1998. Inhibitory effect of cycloartenol ferulate, a component of rice bran, on tumor promotion in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 21: 1072-1076.
Zhang, Z., Wei, T., Hou, J., Li, G., Yu, S. and Xin, W., 2003. Iron-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in cerebellar granule cells: attenuation by tetramethylpyrazine and ferulic acid. European Journal of Pharmacology 467: 41-47.
Zigoneanu, I., Williams, L., Xu, Z. and Sabliov, C., 2008. Determination of antioxidant components in rice bran oil extracted by microwave-assisted method. Bioresource Technology 99: 4910-4918.