Active compound analysis of ethanolic extract of roselle calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Main Article Content

Sindhu Bharadhi Swarneswari Arunasalam
Nageswari Karthikeyan
Arumugam Thangaiah
Rajagopal Balasubramaniam
Anitha Thiyagarajan
Rajangam Jacob


GC-MS, roselle, Hibiscus Sabdariffa, active compound analysis, pharmacological properties, bioactive chemicals


Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is a comestible plant known for its fleshy red calyces that are used in making a wide range of foods such as wine, juice, jam, syrup, pudding, cakes, ice cream, and herbal tea. The anti-bacterial, diuretic, anti-oxidant, and anti-mutagenic effects of the roselle calyces are also well known. It is high in vitamins, minerals and bioactive substances such as organic acids, phytosterols, and polyphenols, and because of its extensive pharmacological potential, it has long been used as folk medicine to treat common cold. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) is the best technique to identify the compounds present in the sample by mass spectra data obtained from purely available standards injected under the same conditions. In this study, the GC-MS technique was used to validate the pharmacological potential of Hibiscus sabdariffa by identifying the chemicals found in its calyces. The maximum cyanidin-3-glucoside was found to be the highest in PKM (Periyakulam) HS 04 1784.65 mg/100 g in cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents, total flavonoid content (28.01 mg QE/g), and DPPH (2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) activity % (93.17), and in PKM HS 02 total phenolic content (1.29 GA mg/g). The extract was prepared by soaking a dry calyx powder sample in methanol overnight and the ethanolic extract was then analyzed using GC-MS. Flavonoids, tannins, phenols, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, and steroids were found in the ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces. The existence of 26 bioactive chemicals was discovered by GC-MS analysis, including phthalic acid, astaxanthin, lutein, lycoxanthin, 3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, rhodoxanthin, molybdenum, and hexadecenoic acid. The presence of some of these bioactive chemicals has been used to support scientific evidence for the plant’s anti-aging, anti-oxidant, anti-hypertensive, and anti-inflammatory capabilities, which constitute valuable preliminary information in pharma industries.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 121 | PDF Downloads 198 HTML Downloads 11 XML Downloads 16


Al-hadithy, O.N., 2020. Phytoconstituents, antioxidant and allelopathic properties of Suaeda aegyptiaca (hasselq.) Zohary extract on Chenopodium murale.

Al-Rekaby, L.S., 2018. Influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and bio stimulators on growth and content of bioactive constituents of karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Journal of Botany 1: 1–11. 10.1155/2018/9097363

Ambati, R.R., Siew Moi, P., Ravi, S. and Aswathanarayana, R.G., 2014. Astaxanthin: sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications—a review. Marine Drugs 12(1): 128–152. 10.3390/md12010128

Aparna, V., Dileep, K.V., Mandal, P.K., Karthe, P., Sadasivan, C. and Haridas, M., 2012. Anti-inflammatory property of n-hexadecanoic acid: structural evidence and kinetic assessment. Chemical Biology & Drug Design 80(3): 434–439. 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2012.01418.x

Buscemi, S., Corleo, D., Di Pace, F., Petroni, M. L., Satriano, A. and Marchesini, G., 2018. The effect of lutein on eye and extra-eye health. Nutrients 10(9): 1321. 10.3390/nu10091321

Donoso, A., González-Durán, J., Muñoz, A.A., González, P.A. and Agurto-Munoz, C., 2021. Therapeutic uses of natural astaxanthin: an evidence-based review focused on human clinical trials. Pharmacological Research 166: 105479. 10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105479

Gopalakrishnan, K. and Udayakumar, R., 2014. GC-MS analysis of phytocompounds of leaf and stem of Marsilea quadrifolia (L.).

Higginbotham, K.L., Burris, K.P., Zivanovic, S., Davidson, P.M. and Stewart, C.N., Jr, 2014. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in a microbiological medium and milk of various fat concentrations. Journal of Food Protection 77(2): 262–268. 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-313

Jasim, H., Hussein, A.O., Hameed, I.H. and Kareem, M.A., 2015. Characterization of alkaloid constitution and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Solanum nigrum using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy 7(4): 56–72.

Jeon, S.M., Kim, H.J., Woo, M.N., Lee, M.K., Shin, Y.C., Park, Y.B. and Choi, M.S. 2010. Fucoxanthin-rich seaweed extract suppresses body weight gain and improves lipid metabolism in high-fat-fed C57BL/6J mice. Biotechnology Journal 5(9): 961–969. 10.1002/biot.201000215

Jia, Y.-P., Sun, L., Yu, H.-S., Liang, L.-P., Li, W., Ding, H., Song, X.-B. et al., 2017. The pharmacological effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on visual disorders and cognition diseases. Molecules 22(4): 610. 10.3390/molecules22040610

Mandal, V., Ghosh, N.N., Mitra, P.K. and Mandal, S., 2022. Production and characterization of a broad-spectrum antimicrobial 5-butyl-2-pyridine carboxylic acid from Aspergillus fumigatus nHF-01. Scientific Reports 12(1), 1–16. 10.1038/s41598-022-09925-z

Nandagopalan, V., Gritto, M.J. and Doss, A., 2015. GC-MS analysis of bioactive components of the methanol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus Linn. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research 5(3): 6–10.

Nuzzi, A., Fiasella, A., Ortega, J.A., Pagliuca, C., Ponzano, S., Pizzirani, D., et al., 2016. Potent α-amino-β-lactam carbamic acid ester as NAAA inhibitors. Synthesis and structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 111: 138–159. 10.1016/j.ejmech.2016.01.046

Okore, G., Oguzie, E., Ogukwe, C. and Akalezi, C., 2021. GC-MS analysis of phytochemicals from the extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa grown in Northern Nigeria. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria 46(2): pp.417–0423. 10.46602/jcsn.v46i2.613

Olivia, N.U., Goodness, U.C. and Obinna, O.M., 2021. Phytochemical profiling and GC-MS analysis of aqueous methanol fraction of Hibiscus asper leaves. Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 7(1): 1–5. 10.1186/s43094-021-00208-4

Patel, D., 2015. Plant as a source of medicine. Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, S:3(1): 1–3. 10.4172/2167-0412.S3-e001

Rakesh, B., Hima Bindu, K. and Praveen, N., 2021. Variations in the L-DOPA content, phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of different germlines of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Asian Journal of Chemistry 33(8): 1881–1890. 10.14233/ajchem.2021.23293

Rassem, H., Nour, A.H. and Yunus, R.M., 2017. GC-MS analysis of bioactive constituents of Hibiscus flower. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 11: 91–97.

Ravi, L. and Krishnan, K., 2017. Research article cytotoxic potential of N-hexadecanoic acid extracted from Kigelia pinnata leaves. Asian Journal of Cell Biology 12: 20–27. 10.3923/ajcb.2017.20.27

Scherr, N., Pluschke, G., Thompson, C.J. and Ramón-García, S., 2015. Selamectin is the avermectin with the best potential for Buruli ulcer treatment. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 9(8): e0003996. 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003996

Schex, R., Schweiggert, F., Wüstenberg, B., Bonrath, W., Schäfer, C. and Schweiggert, R., 2020. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the thermally induced (E/Z)-isomerization of the retro-carotenoid rhodoxanthin. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 68(18): 5259–5269. 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c00933

Shruthi, V.H. and Ramachandra, C.T., 2019, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyces: a potential source of natural color and its health benefits. In Food bioactives, 169–190. Apple Academic Press.

Starlin, T., Prabha, P.S., Thayakumar, B.K.A. and Gopalakrishnan, V.K., 2019. Screening and GC-MS profiling of ethanolic extract of Tylophora pauciflora. Bioinformation 15(6): 425. 10.6026/97320630015425

Sukwattanasinit, T., Burana-Osot, J. and Sotanaphun, U., 2007. Spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of total anthocyanins and quality characteristics of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa). Planta medica, 73(14): 1517–1522. 10.1055/s-2007-990262

Xi, Y., Fowdur, M., Liu, Y., Wu, H., He, M. and Zhao, J., 2019. Differential expression and bioinformatics analysis of circRNA in osteosarcoma. Bioscience Reports, 39(5):BSR20181514. 10.1042/BSR20181514

Xia, L., Bellomo, T.R., Gibadullin, R., Congdon, M.D., Edmondson, E.F., Li, M., Wlodawer, A., Li, C., Temme, J.S., Patel, P. and Butcher, D., 2022. Development of a GalNAc-Tyrosine-Specific Monoclonal Antibody and Detection of Tyrosine O-GalNAcylation in Numerous Human Tissues and Cell Lines. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 144(36):16410–16422. 10.1021/jacs.2c04477

Zhang, H., Tang, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhang, S., Qu, J., Wang, X., et al., 2015. Fucoxanthin: a promising medicinal and nutritional ingredient. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2015: 723515. 10.1155/2015/723515