Main Article Content
ELISA, porcine substances, food authentication, food products
Food manufacturers across the world commonly add animal substances in their food products. Some food products may contain porcine substances including pork, gelatine, blood and pepsin. These substances significantly affect the texture, colour or taste of the end products. Aside from enhancing sensory qualities, additional ingredients also contribute to preservation, bulk and nutrition. However, the inclusion of porcine substances might not be suitable among certain communities. One primary concern is fraud labelling which includes hiding the addition of porcine substances in food. Therefore, analytical techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) have been developed to detect the porcine proteins in food. The ELISA delivers specificity and sensitivity in detecting the targeted animal species in food. This review provides an overview of the ELISA technique which has been developed for potential detection of porcine substances in laboratory-prepared food samples and commercial food products.
Asensio, L., González, I., García, T. and Martín, R., 2008. Determination of food authenticity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Food Control 19: 1-8.
Asero, R., Mistrello, G. and Falagiani, P., 1997. Oral allergy syndrome from pork. Allergy 53: 684-685.
Ayuso, R., Lehrer, S.B., Tanaka, L., Ibañez, M.D., Pascual, C., Burks, A.W., Sussman, G.L., Goldberg, B., Lopez, M. and Reese, G., 1999. IgE antibody response to vertebrate meat proteins including tropomyosin. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 83: 399-405.
Bhat, M.M., Jalal, H., Para, P.A., Bukhari, S.A., Ganguly, S., Bhat, A.A., Wakchaure, R. and Qadri, K., 2015. Fraudulent adulteration/substitution of meat: a review. International Journal of Recent Research and Applied Studies2: 22-33.
Boudjellab, N., Grosclaude, J., Zhao, X. and Collin, J.C., 1998. Development of an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of residual porcine pepsin in a soft cheese sample. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46: 4030-4033.
Chen, F.C. and Hsieh, Y.H.P., 2000. Detection of pork in heat-processed meat products by monoclonal antibody-based ELISA. Journal of AOAC International 83: 79-85.
Chen, F.C., Hsieh, Y.H.P. and Bridgman, R.C., 1998. Monoclonal antibodies to porcine thermal-stable muscle protein for detection of pork in raw and cooked meats. Journal of Food Science 63: 201-205.
Chiu, M.L., Lawi, W., Snyder, S.T., Wong, P.K., Liao, J.C. and Gau, V., 2010. Matrix effects-a challenge toward automation of molecular analysis. Journal of the Association for Laboratory Automation 15: 233-242.
Crowther, J.R., 2009. The ELISA guidebook, 2nd edition. Humana Press, New York, NY, USA, 566 pp.
Doi, H., Watanabe, E., Shibata, H. and Tanabe, S., 2009. A reliable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of bovine and porcine gelatin in processed foods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57: 1721-1726.
El Sheikha, A.F., 2015. New strategies for tracing foodstuffs: biological barcodes utilizing PCR-DGGE. Advances in Food Technology and Nutrition Sciences 1: 1-7.
El Sheikha, A.F., Mokhtar, N.F.K., Amie, C., Lamasudin, D.U., Isa, N.M. and Mustafa, S., 2017. Authentication technologies using DNA-based approaches for meats and halal meats determination. Food Biotechnology 31: 281-315.
El-Batawy, M., Zahran, A.S., Madkor, S.A., Smith, C.J., 1993. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of porcine pepsin as a milk clotting enzyme. Food and Agricultural Immunology 5: 57-60.
European Commission, 2011. European Commission Regulation No. 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers, amending Regulations (EC) No 1924/2006 and (EC) No 1925/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Commission Directive 87/250/EEC, Council Directive 90/496/EEC, Commission Directive 1999/10/EC, Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Directives 2002/67/EC and 2008/5/EC and Commission Regulation (EC) No 608/2004. Official Journal of the European Union L 304: 18-63. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32011R1169&from=EN
Fernández, A., García, T., Asensio, L., Rodríguez, M.A., González, I., Lobo, E., Hernández, P.E. and Martín, R., 2002. Identification of the clam species Ruditapes decussatus (grooved carpet shell), Venerupis romboides (yellow carpet shell) and Venerupis pullastra(pullet carpet shell) by ELISA. Food and Agricultural Immunology 14: 65--71.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 2018. Sources of meat. Available at: http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/themes/en/meat/backgr_sources.html
Giamalva, J., 2014. Pork and swine – industry and trade summary. United States International Trade Commission, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 1-84. Available at: https://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/pork_and_swine_summary_its_11.pdf
Guinee, T.P. and Wilkinson, M.G., 1992. Rennet coagulation and coagulants in cheese manufacture. International Journal of Dairy Technology45: 94-104.
Hidaka, S. and Liu, S.Y., 2003. Effects of gelatins on calcium phosphate precipitation: a possible application for distinguishing bovine bone gelatin from porcine skin gelatin. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis16: 477-483.
Jantzie, L.L., Tanay, V.A.M.I. and Todd, K.G., 2007. Methods in immunochemistry. In: Lajtha, A., Baker, G., Dunn, S. and Holt, A. (eds.) Handbook of neurochemistry and molecular neurobiology: practical neurochemistry methods, 3rd edition. Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 193-218.
Jiang, X., Fuller, D., Hsieh, Y.H.P. and Rao, Q., 2018. Monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the quantification of porcine hemoglobin in meat products. Food Chemistry 250: 170-179.
Jones, S.J. and Patterson, R.L.S., 1985. Double-antibody ELISA for detection of trace amounts of pig meat in raw meat mixtures. Meat Science15: 1-13.
Kiening, M., Niessner, R., Drs, E., Baumgartner, S., Krska, R., Bremer, M., Tomkies, V., Reece, P., Danks, C., Immer, U. and Weller, M.G., 2005. Sandwich immunoassays for the determination of peanut and hazelnut traces in foods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53: 3321-3327.
Kragstrup, T.W., Vorup-Jensen, T., Deleuran, B. and Hvid, M., 2013. A simple set of validation steps identifies and removes false results in a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay caused by anti-animal IgG antibodies in plasma from arthritis patients. SpringerPlus 2: 263.
Liu, L.H., Chen, F.C., Dorsey, J.L. and Hsieh, Y.H.P., 2006. Sensitive monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA for the detection of porcine skeletal muscle in meat and feed products. Journal of Food Science 71: M1-M6.
Macedo-Silva, A., Shimokomaki, M., Vaz, A.J., Yamamoto, Y.Y. and Tenuta-Filho, A., 2001. Textured soy protein quantification in commercial hamburger. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis14: 469-478.
Mandli, J., El Fatimi, I., Seddaoui, N. and Amine, A., 2018. Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA/immunosensor) for a sensitive detection of pork adulteration in meat. Food Chemistry 255: 380-389.
Martín, R., Azcona, J.I., Casas, C., Hernandéz, P.E. and Sanz, B., 1988. Sandwich ELISA for detection of pig meat in raw beef using antisera to muscle soluble proteins. Journal of Food Protection 51: 790-794.
Mohamad, A.N., El Sheikha, A.F., Mustafa, S. and Mokhtar, N.F.K., 2013. Comparison of gene nature used in real-time PCR for porcine identification and quantification: a review. Food Research International 50: 330-338.
Mohamad, N.A., Mustafa, S., El Sheikha, A.F., Khairil Mokhtar, N.F., Ismail, A. and Ali, M.E., 2016. Modification of gelatine-DNA interaction for optimised DNA extraction from gelatine and gelatine capsule. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 96: 2344-2351.
Morales, P., García, T., González, I., Martín, R., Sanz, B. and Hernández, P.E., 1994. Monoclonal antibody detection of porcine meat. Journal of Food Protection57: 146-149.
Murugaiah, C., Noor, Z.M., Mastakim, M., Bilung, L.M., Selamat, J. and Radu, S., 2009. Meat species identification and Halal authentication analysis using mitochondrial DNA. Meat Science 83: 57-61.
Nur Hanani, Z.A., 2016. Gelatine. In: Caballero, B., Finglas, P.M. and Toldrá, F. (eds.) Encyclopedia of food and health, 1st edition, Vol. 2. Academic Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 191-195.
Ofori, J. and Hsieh, Y.H.P., 2017. Immunodetection of porcine red blood cell containing food ingredients using a porcine-hemoglobin-specific monoclonal antibody. Foods 6: 101.
Ofori, J.A. and Hsieh, Y.H.P., 2012. The use of blood and derived products as food additives. In: El-Samragy, Y. (ed.) Food additive. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp. 229-256.
Ofori, J.A. and Hsieh, Y.H.P., 2016. Monoclonal antibodies as probes for the detection of porcine blood-derived food ingredients. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 64: 3705-3711.
Ortea, I., O’Connor, G. and Maquet, A., 2016. Review on proteomics for food authentication. Journal of Proteomics147: 212-225.
Raja Nhari, R.M.H., Hamid, M., Rasli, N.M., Omar, A.R., El Sheikha, A.F. and Mustafa, S., 2016. Monoclonal antibodies specific to heat-treated porcine blood. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 96: 2524-2531.
Raja Nhari, R.M.H., Ismail, A. and Che Man, Y.B., 2012. Analytical methods for gelatin differentiation from bovine and porcine origins and food products. Journal of Food Science 71: R41-R46.
Raja Nhari, R.M.H., Khairil Mokhtar, N.F., Hanish, I., Hamid, M., Mohamed Rashidi, M.A. A. and Shahidan, N.M., 2018. Monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay for detection of porcine plasma in fish surimi. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A 35(5): 807-817.
Regenstein, J.M., Chaudry, M.M. and Regenstein, C.E., 2003. The kosher and halal food laws. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 2: 111-127.
Rohman, A. and Che Man, Y.B., 2012. Analysis of pig derivatives for Halal authentication studies. Food Reviews International 28: 97-112.
Rolet-Répécaud, O., Arnould, C., Dupont, D., Gavoye, S., Beuvier, E. and Achilleos, C., 2015. Development and evaluation of a monoclonal antibody-based inhibition ELISA for the quantification of chymosin in solution. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63: 4799-4804.
Rolet-Répécaud, O., Arnould, C., Dupont, D., Gavoye, S., Beuvier, E. and Achilleos, C., 2017. Quantification of pepsin in rennet using a monoclonal antibody-based inhibition ELISA. LWT – Food Science and Technology 76: 190-196.
Rupa, P., Hamilton, K., Cirinna, M. and Wilkie, B.N., 2008. Porcine IgE in the context of experimental food allergy: purification and isotype-specific antibodies. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 125: 303-314.
Schmidt, S.D., Mazzella, M.J., Nixon, R.A. and Mathews, P.M., 2012. A? measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In: Sigurdsson, E., Calero, M. and Gasset, M. (eds.) Amyloid proteins: methods in molecular biology (methods and protocols). Vol. 849. Humana Press, New York, NY, USA, pp. 507-527.
Tukiran, N.A., Ismail, A., Mustafa, S. and Hamid, M., 2015. Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of porcine gelatine in edible bird’s nests.Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 32: 1023-1028.
Tukiran, N.A., Ismail, A., Mustafa, S. and Hamid, M., 2016a. Determination of porcine gelatin in edible bird’s nest by competitive indirect ELISA based on anti-peptide polyclonal antibody. Food Control 59: 561-566.
ukiran, N.A., Ismail, A., Mustafa, S. and Hamid, M., 2016b. Development of antipeptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of gelatin in confectionery products. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 51: 54-60.
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2017. Livestock and poultry: world markets and trade. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. Available at: https://www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/livestock_poultry.pdf
United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), 2015. Agriculture: pork production. National Agriculture Compliance Assistance Center. Available at: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-07/documents/ag_101_agriculture_us_epa_0.pdf
Venien, A. and Levieux, D., 2005. Differentiation of gelatins using polyclonal antibodies raised against tyrosylated bovine and porcine gelatins. Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry 26: 215-229.
Wilson, J.M. and Platts-Mills, T.A.E., 2018. Meat allergy and allergens. Molecular Immunology 100: 107-112.
Yeung, J.M., Newsome, W.H. and Abbott, M.A., 2000. Determination of egg proteins in food products by enzyme immunoassay. Journal of AOAC International 83: 139-143.