Individual and combined decontamination effect of fermentation and ultrasound on aflatoxin B1 in wheat-based doughs: a preliminary study

Main Article Content

Amanda Bezerra Gonçalves Basso
Sher Ali
Carlos Humberto Corassin
Roice Eliana Rosim
Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveria

Keywords

aflatoxin B1, wheat-based products, ultrasound, fermentation, decontamination

Abstract

In this work, a preliminary investigation was conducted to examine the effect of ultrasound (US), alone or in combination with fermentation, on the reduction of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at 50 ng/g in wheat flour-based doughs. The US treatment was performed by soaking flasks containing triplicate samples of non-fermented and fermented (18 h at 28°C; 85% relative humidity) doughs in US bath (40 kHz; 100 W/cm2) at 35°C for 10, 30 and 60 min. Percentage reduction of AFB1 levels as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography varied between 3.6% and 46.0% in non-fermented doughs, and from 6.7% to 61.7% in fermented doughs. The US treatments used in the experiment did not interfere with the titratable acidity of fermented doughs, hence confirming US as a promising technique to reduce aflatoxin levels in fermented wheat-based products. The future studies are required to determine other parameters, such as temperature and pH of the product, to optimize the decontamination process of AFB1 as well as to evaluate possible effects of US on the sensory attributes of wheat-based products.

Abstract 278 | PDF Downloads 219 HTML Downloads 11 XML Downloads 6

References

Abedi, E., Pourmohammadi, K., Jahromi, M., Niakousari, M. and Torri, L., 2019. The effect of ultrasonic probe size for effective ultrasound-assisted pregelatinized starch. Food and Bioprocess Technology 12: 1852–1862. 10.1007/s11947-019-02347-2

Agriopoulou, S., Stamatelopoulou, E. and Varzakas, T., 2020. Advances in occurrence, importance, and mycotoxin control strategies: prevention and detoxification in foods. Foods 9: 137. 10.3390/foods9020137

Alarcon-Rojo, A.D., Janacua, H., Rodriguez, J.C., Paniwnyk, L. and Mason, T.J., 2015. Power ultrasound in meat processing. Meat Science 107: 86–93. 10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.04.015

Azevedo, C., Kasahara, M. and Montagner, C., 2021. Método analítico para determinação dos corantes auramina em testes de ecotoxicidade e em águas superficiais. Quimica Nova 44: 817–823. 10.21577/0100-4042.20170740

Casado, A., Álvarez, A., González, L., Fernández, D., Marcos, J.L. and Tornadijo, M.E., 2017. Effect of fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and physical characteristics of sourdough and impact of its use on bread quality. Czech Journal of Food Sciences 35: 496–506. 10.17221/68/2017-CJFS

Corassin, C.H., Bovo, F., Rosim, R.E. and Oliveira, C.A.F., 2013. Efficiency of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria strains to bind aflatoxin M1 in UHT skimmed milk. Food Control 31: 80–83. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.09.033

de Oliveira, C.A.F., Corassin, C.H., Corrêa, B. and Oswald, I.P., 2014. Animal health: mycotoxins. In: Encyclopedia of agriculture and food systems (ed. Neal K. Van Alfen). Elsevier, Cambridge, MA, pp. 358–377. 10.1016/B978-0-444-52512-3.00200-X

Dumuta, A., Vosgan, Z., Mihali, C., Giurgiulescu, L., Kovacs, M., Sugar, R., et al. 2022. The influence of unconventional ultrasonic pasteurization on the characteristics of curds obtained from goat milk with the low cholesterol content. Ultrason Sonochem 89: 106155. 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2022.106155

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2020. Outcome of a public consultation on the draft risk assessment of aflatoxins in food. EFSA Journal 17: 1798. 10.2903/sp.efsa.2020.EN-1798

García-Mantrana, I., Monedero, V. and Haros, M., 2015. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate degradation by Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 improves mineral availability of high fibre rye-wheat sour bread. Food Chemistry 178: 267–275. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.099

Gavahian, M., Mathad, G.N., Oliveira, C.A.F. and Mousavi Khaneghah, A., 2021. Combinations of emerging technologies with fermentation: interaction effects for detoxification of mycotoxins? Food Research International 141: 110104. 10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110104

Gavahian, M., Pallares, N., al Khawli, F., Ferrer, E. and Barba, F.J., 2020. Recent advances in the application of innovative food processing technologies for mycotoxins and pesticide reduction in foods. Trends in Food Science and Technology 106: 209–218. 10.1016/j.tifs.2020.09.018

Grenier, B., Loureiro-Bracarense, A.-P., Leslie, J.F. and Oswald, I.P., 2014. Physical and chemical methods for mycotoxin decontamination in maize. In: Mycotoxin reduction in grain chains. John Wiley, Chichester, UK, pp. 116–129. 10.1002/9781118832790.ch9

Guo, J. and Lei, G., 2020. Application of ultrasound to enhance the silt drying process: an experimental study. PLoS One 15: e0236492. 10.1371/journal.pone.0236492

Ismail, A., Gonçalves, B.L., Neeff, D.V., Ponzilacqua, B., Coppa, C.F.S.C., Hintzsche, H., et al. 2018. Aflatoxin in foodstuffs: occurrence and recent advances in decontamination. Food Research International 113: 74–85. 10.1016/j.foodres.2018.06.067

Jager, A.V., Tedesco, M.P., Souto, P.C.M.C. and Oliveira, C.A.F., 2013. Assessment of aflatoxin intake in São Paulo, Brazil. Food Control 33: 87–92. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.02.016

Jager, A.V., Tonin, F.G., Baptista, G.Z., Souto, P.C.M.C. and Oliveira, C.A.F., 2016. Assessment of aflatoxin exposure using serum and urinary biomarkers in São Paulo, Brazil: a pilot study. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 219: 294–300. 10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.12.003

Khadhraoui, B., Ummat, V., Tiwari, B.K., Fabiano-Tixier, A.S. and Chemat, F., 2021. Review of ultrasound combinations with hybrid and innovative techniques for extraction and processing of food and natural products. Ultrason Sonochem 76: 105625. 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105625

Li, J., Hou, G.G. and Chen, Z., 2013. Whole grain saltine crackers: formulation, processing, and quality improvements. Cereal Foods World 58: 180–185. 10.1094/CFW-58-4-0180

Liu, Y., Li, M., Liu, Y., Bai, F. and Bian, K., 2019a. Effects of pulsed ultrasound at 20 kHz on the sonochemical degradation of mycotoxins. World Mycotoxin J 12: 357–366. 10.3920/WMJ2018.2431

Liu, Y., Li, M., Liu, Y. and Bian, K., 2019b. Structures of reaction products and degradation pathways of aflatoxin B1 by ultrasound treatment. Toxins (Basel) 11: 526. 10.3390/toxins11090526

Liu, Y., Liu, Y., Zhao, W., Li, M., Liu, N. and Bian, K., 2022. Reduction of aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone contents in corn using power ultrasound and its effects on corn quality. Toxins 14: 834. 10.3390/toxins14120834

Ma, H., Liu, M., Liang, Y., Zheng, X., Sun, L., Dang, W., et al. 2022. Research progress on properties of pre-gelatinized starch and its application in wheat flour products. Grain and Oil Science and Technology 5: 87–97. 10.1016/j.gaost.2022.01.001

Mousavi-Khaneghah, A., Mostashari, P., Oliveira, C.A.F, Vanin, F.M., Amiri, S. and Sant’ana, A.S., 2023. Assessment of the concentrations of ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol during cracker production. Journal of Food and Composition Analysis 115: 104950. 10.1016/j.jfca.2022.104950

Noroozi, R., Kobarfard, F., Rezaei, M., Ayatollahi, S.A., Paimard, G., Eslamizad, S., et al. 2022. Occurrence and exposure assessment of aflatoxin B1 in Iranian breads and wheat-based products considering effects of traditional processing. Food Control 138: 108985. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2022.108985

Noroozi, R., Sadeghi, E., Rouhi, M., Safajoo, S., Razmjoo, F., Paimard, G., et al. 2020. Fates of aflatoxin B1 from wheat flour to Iranian traditional cookies: managing procedures to aflatoxin B1 reduction during traditional processing. Food Science and Nutrition 8: 6014–6022. 10.1002/fsn3.1888

Nunes, V.M.R., Moosavi, M., Mousavi-Khaneghah, A. and Oliveira, C.A.F., 2021. Innovative modifications in food processing to reduce the levels of mycotoxins. Current Opinion in Food Science, 38: 155–161. 10.1016/j.cofs.2020.11.010

Rashid Hudu, A., Gustav Komla, M. and Opoku, N., 2022. Influence of indigenous processing methods on aflatoxin occurrence in Africa. In: Aflatoxins – occurrence, detoxification, determination and health risks. IntechOpen, London, pp. 75–87. 10.5772/intechopen.96893

Schrenk, D., Bignami, M., Bodin, L., Chipman, J.K., del Mazo, J., Grasl-Kraupp, B., et al. 2020. Risk assessment of aflatoxins in food. EFSA Journal 18: 6040. 10.2903/j.efsa.2020.6040

Vonesh, E.F., 2012. Generalized Linear and Nonlinear Models for Correlated Data: Theory and applications using SAS. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.

Wochner, K.F., Becker-Algeri, T.A., Colla, E., Badiale-Furlong, E. and Drunkler, D.A., 2018. The action of probiotic microorganisms on chemical contaminants in milk. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 44: 112–123. 10.1080/1040841X.2017.1329275

Xiong, X., Liu, C., Song, M. and Zheng, X., 2021. Effect of characteristics of different wheat flours on the quality of fermented hollow noodles. Food Science and Nutrition 9: 4927–4937. 10.1002/fsn3.2442