Effects of vitamins A, C, and D and zinc on urinary tract infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Peng Gao
Weijing Liang
Qian Zhao
Haimei Li
Lijia Guan
Dan Li


urinary tract infection, meta-analysis, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc


Urinary tract infection (UTI) is responsible for a significant portion of the overall expenses of health care as well as mortality rates globally. We searched through the available research to evaluate whether micronutrient supplements affect the frequency and intensity of UTI in children Papers that investigated the effects of vitamins D and C, zinc, and multiple micronutrient supplementations (MMS) on the incidence and severity of UTI in pediatric patients were pooled together. A random effects model was used to conduct a meta-analysis of data. Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of UTI and shortened the duration of symptoms in children. If a clinical diagnosis or laboratory investigation was used to confirm UTI, the relative probability of UTI with vitamin D was remote from the null than using the self-report. If vitamin C was administrated, the frequency of UTI was reduced, and the period of clinical manifestations was cut to half. It was not possible to determine the impact of using zinc supplements. According to the findings of the current review, taking micronutrient supplements such as zinc, vitamins C and D, and multiple micronutrient supplementation could assist in preventing UTI and lessen its clinical outcome in pediatric patients. More research is required to establish the effect of individual or combination of micronutrients on the treatment outcomes of UTI.


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