Effects of pre-drying on the quality of frying oil and potato slices

Main Article Content

T.D. Capar
H. Yalcin


potato, drying, deep-frying, oil uptake, quality


The effects of pre-drying on the quality of frying oil and potato slices were investigated. Potato slices were air-dried at 60 °C for 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 min before frying. The pre-dried potato slices were deep-fried in sunflower oil at 180 °C for 5, 10, 13 min and sampled. For the oil sampling, the frying procedure was repeated five times using dried potato slices without oil replenishment. Oil samples were removed at the end of successive frying operations (13 min-1st, 39 min-3rd, 65 min-5th) and analysed. The moisture content, colour and oil intake of the potato slices and the colour, peroxide value, free fatty acid, fatty acid composition and viscosity of the oil samples were evaluated. Pre-drying treatment had a significant effect on the physicochemical properties of potato slices and frying oil. Pre-drying decreased the oil absorption. The oil content for the 5 min frying was found as 4.46% and 2.93%, respectively, for the control and 120 min pre dried samples. Free fatty acid levels and viscosity of the oil decreased depending on the pre-drying time. The highest level of free fatty acid (0.42%) was found at the end of the 5th frying operation in control samples. The viscosity of oil increased during frying. In control samples, the viscosity of oil was found 82.47 and 85.8 Pa s, respectively, at the 1st and 3rd frying operations. Pre-drying did not affect the fatty acid composition of the frying oil when compared with fresh oil.

Abstract 59 | PDF Downloads 54


Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 1990. Official methods. AOAC, Washington, DC, USA.
Bansal, G., Zhou, W., Tan, T.-W., Neo, F.-L. and Lo, H.-L., 2009. Analysis of trans fatty acids in deep frying oils by three different approaches. Food Chemistry 116: 535-541.
Bensmira, M., Jiang, B., Nsabimana, C. and Jian, T., 2007. Effect of lavender and thyme incorporation in sunflower seed oil on its resistance to frying temperatures. Food Research International 40: 341-346.
Blau, R., 1965. Results of 2450 megacycle microwave treatments in potato chips finishing. Potato Chip Institute International, New York, NY, USA, pp. 27-31.
Blau, R., Powell, M. and Gerling, J.E., 1965. Results of 2450 megacycle microwave treatments in potato chip finishing. Potato Chip Institute International, New York, NY, USA, pp. 1-8.
Boskou, G., Salta, F.N., Chiou, A., Troullidou, E. and Andrikopoulos, N.K., 2006. Content of trans,trans-2,4-decadienal in deep-fried and pan-fried potatoes. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 108: 109-115.
Choe, E. and Min, D.B., 2007. Chemistry of deep-fat frying oils. Journal of Food Science 72: 77-86.
Chung, J., Lee, J. and Choe, E., 2004. Oxidative stability of soybean and sesame oil mixture during frying of flour dough. Journal of Food Science 69: 574-578.
Clark, W. and Serbia, G., 1991. Safety aspects of frying fats and oils. Food Technology 45: 84-89.
Damy, P. and Jorge, N., 2003. Fatty acid profile and evaluation of the change in frying oils. Química Nova 31: 956-961.
Dana, D. and Saguy, I.S., 2001. Frying of nutritious foods: obstacles and feasibility. Food Science and Technology Research 7: 265-279.
Daniel, D.R., Thompson, L.D., Shriver, B.J., Wu, C.-K. and Hoover, L.C., 2005. Nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil can be used as a deep fat frying medium to reduce trans-fatty acid content in French fries. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105: 1927-1932.
David, F., Sandra, P. and Vickers, A.K., 2005. Column selection for the analysis of fatty acid methyl esters. Food Analysis Application. Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
Dobarganes, C., Márquez-Ruiz, G. and Velasco, J., 2000. Interactions between fat and food during deep-frying. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 102: 521-528.
Falguera, V., Quintero, J.P., Jiménez, A., Muñoz, J.A. and Ibarz, A., 2011. Edible films and coatings: structures, active functions and trends in their use. Trends in Food Science and Technology 22: 292-303.
Gamble, M. and Rice, P., 1987. Effect of pre-fry drying of oil uptake and distribution in potato crisp manufacture. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 22: 535-548.
Garc?a, M., Ferrero, C., Bertola, N., Martino, M. and Zaritzky, N., 2002. Edible coatings from cellulose derivatives to reduce oil uptake in fried products. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 3: 391-397.
Garmakhany, A.D., Mirzaei, H.O., Nejad, M.K. and Maghsudlo, Y., 2008. Study of oil uptake and some quality attributes of potato chips affected by hydrocolloids. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 110: 1045-1049.
Gordon, M.H., 1991. Oils and fats: taint or flavour? Chemistry in Britain 27: 1020-1022.
Gupta, P., Shivhare, U. and Bawa, A., 2000. Studies on frying kinetics and quality of French fries. Drying Technology 18: 311-321.
Innawong, B., 2001. Improving fried product and frying oil quality using nitrogen gas in a pressure frying system. Doctoral Dissertation Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA, 146 pp.
Irwandi, J., Che Man, Y. and Kitts, D., 2000. Synergistic effect of rosemary and sage extracts and citric acid on fatty acid retention of RBD palm olein during deep-fat frying. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 77: 527-533.
Jaswir, I. and Man, Y.B.C., 1999. Use optimization of natural antioxidants in refined, bleached, and deodorized palm olein during repeated deep-fat frying using response surface methodology. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 76: 341-348.
Kannel, W.B., Neaton, J., Wentworth, D.F., Thomas, H., Stamler, J., Hulley, S. and Kjelsberg, M., 1986. Overall and coronary heart disease mortality rates in relation to major risk factors in 325,348 men screened for the MRFIT. American Heart Journal 112: 825-836.
Karoui, I.J., Dhifi, W., Ben Jemia, M. and Marzouk, B., 2011. Thermal stability of corn oil flavoured with Thymus capitatus under heating and deep-frying conditions. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 91: 927-933.
Krokida, M., Oreopoulou, V., Maroulis, Z. and Marinos-Kouris, D., 2001a. Deep fat frying of potato strips – quality issues. Drying Technology 19: 879-935.
Krokida, M., Oreopoulou, V., Maroulis, Z. and Marinos-Kouris, D., 2001b. Effect of pre-drying on quality of French fries. Journal of Food Engineering 49: 347-354.
Krokida, M.K., Oreopoulou, V., Maroulis, Z.B. and Marinos-Kouris, D., 2001c. Colour changes during deep fat frying. Journal of Food Engineering 48: 219-225.
Krokida, M.K., Oreopoulou, V., Maroulis, Z.B. and Marinos-Kouris, D., 2001d. Effect of osmotic dedydration pretreatment on quality of French fries. Journal of Food Engineering 49: 339-345.
Li, Y., Seyed-Yagoobi, J., Moreira, R. and Yamsaengsung, R., 1999. Superheated steam impingement drying of tortilla chips. Drying Technology 17: 191-213.
Man, Y.B.C., Hamed, M., Tan, C.P. and Alireza, S., 2010. Effect of vegetable-based oil blends on physicochemical properties of oils during deep-fat frying. American Journal of Food Technology 5: 310-323.
Man, Y.C. and Hussin, W.W., 1998. Comparison of the frying performance of refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein and coconut oil. Journal of Food Lipids 5: 197-210.
Maskan, M., 2003. Change in colour and rheological behaviour of sunflower seed oil during frying and after adsorbent treatment of used oil. European Food Research and Technology 218: 20-25.
Maskan, M. and ?. Ba?c?, H., 2003. The recovery of used sunflower seed oil utilized in repeated deep-fat frying process. European Food Research and Technology 218: 26-31.
Matalgyto, F. and Al-Khalifa, A., 1998. Effect of microwave oven heating on stability some oils and fats. The Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research 16: 21-40.
Miranda, M.L. and Aguilera, J.M., 2006. Structure and texture properties of fried potato products. Food Reviews International 22: 173-201.
Moyano, P.C. and Pedreschi, F., 2006. Kinetics of oil uptake during frying of potato slices. LWT-Food Science and Technology 39: 285-291.
Moyano, P.C., Ríoseco, V.K. and González, P.A., 2002. Kinetics of crust color changes during deep-fat frying of impregnated French fries. Journal of Food Engineering 54: 249-255.
Mozaffarian, D., Pischon, T., Hankinson, S.E., Rifai, N., Joshipura, K., Willett, W.C. and Rimm, E.B., 2004. Dietary intake of trans fatty acids and systemic inflammation in women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79: 606-612.
Oh, K., Hu, F.B., Manson, J.E., Stampfer, M.J. and Willett, W.C., 2005. Dietary fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women: 20 years of follow-up of the nurses’ health study. American Journal of Epidemiology 161: 672-679.
Onal-Ulusoy, B., Hammond, E. and White, P., 2005. Linalyl oleate as a frying oil autoxidation inhibitor. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 82: 433-438.
Ouchon, P., Aguilera, J. and Pyle, D., 2003. Structure oil-absorption relationships during deep-fat frying. Journal of Food Science 68: 2711-2716.
Paul, S. and Mittal, G., 1996. Dynamics of fat/oil degradation during frying based on optical properties. Journal of Food Engineering 30: 389-403.
Pedreschi, F., León, J., Mery, D., Moyano, P., Pedreschi, R., Kaack, K. and Granby, K., 2007. Color development and acrylamide content of pre-dried potato chips. Journal of Food Engineering 79: 786-793.
Pedreschi, F. and Moyano, P., 2005. Effect of pre-drying on texture and oil uptake of potato chips. LWT-Food Science and Technology 38: 599-604.
Pinthus, E., Weinberg, P. and Saguy, I., 1992. Gel-strength in restructured potato products affects oil uptake during deep-fat frying. Journal of Food Science 57: 1359-1360.
Pinthus, E., Weinberg, P. and Saguy, I., 1995. Deep-fat fried potato product oil uptake as affected by crust physical properties. Journal of Food Science 60: 770-772.
Rimac-Brn?i?, S., Lelas, V., Rade, D. and Šimundi?, B., 2004. Decreasing of oil absorption in potato strips during deep fat frying. Journal of Food Engineering 64: 237-241.
Romero, A., Cuesta, C. and Sánchez-Muniz, F.J., 2000. Trans fatty acid production in deep fat frying of frozen foods with different oils and frying modalities. Nutrition Research 20: 599-608.
Ross, K.A. and Scanlon, M.G., 2004. A fracture mechanics analysis of the texture of fried potato crust. Journal of Food Engineering 62: 417-423.
Saguy, I.S. and Dana, D., 2003. Integrated approach to deep fat frying: engineering, nutrition, health and consumer aspects. Journal of Food Engineering 56: 143-152.
SAS Institute, 2001. SAS/STAT user’s manual, version 8.2. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA.
Smith, O. and Davis, C., 1965. Use of microwaves in batch preparation of potato chips. In: Proceedings of the 15th National Potato Utilisation Conference, 21-23 July 1965, Grand Forks and Fargo, ND, USA, p. 57.
Song, X.-J., Zhang, M. and Mujumdar, A.S., 2007. Effect of vacuum-microwave predrying on quality of vacuum-fried potato chips. Drying Technology 25: 2021-2026.
Stevenson, S., Vaisey-Genser, M. and Eskin, N., 1984. Quality control in the use of deep frying oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 61: 1102-1108.
Subramanian, R., Nandini, K., Sheila, P., Gopalakrishna, A., Raghavarao, K., Nakajima, M., Kimura, T. and Maekawa, T., 2000. Membrane processing of used frying oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 77: 323-328.
Sumnu, S.G. and Sahin, S., 2008. Advances in deep-fat frying of foods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
Takeoka, G.R., Full, G.H. and Dao, L.T., 1997. Effect of heating on the characteristics and chemical composition of selected frying oils and fats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45: 3244-3249.
Tan, Y., Ong, S., Berger, K., Oon, H. and Poh, B., 1985. A study of the cause of rapid color development of heated refined palm oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 62: 999-1006.
Tsuzuki, W., Matsuoka, A. and Ushida, K., 2010. Formation of trans fatty acids in edible oils during the frying and heating process. Food Chemistry 123: 976-982.
Warner, K. and Eskin, N.A.M., 1995. Methods to access quality and stability of oils and fat-containing foods. The American Oil Chemists’ Society, Washington, DC, USA.