Technological quality, bioactive features, and glycemic index of gluten-free cakes formulated with lyophilized wild Prunus spinosa fruit

Main Article Content

Elif Cakir
Görkem Ozülkü
Hatice Bekiroglu
Muhammet Arici
Osman Sagdic

Keywords

antioxidant, gluten-free cake, glycemic index, phenolic, Prunus spinosa, rice flour

Abstract

This study evaluated the effects of rice flour cakes enriched with wild fruit Prunus spinosa powder (PS) on techno-functional, nutrition, and eating quality. PS increases the cakes’ ash, protein, and moisture values. Total phenolic content increased from 35.91±0.25 to 73.39±0.58 mg GAE g-1, and gluten-free cakes’ antioxidant capacity markedly increased with the increasing level of PS powder addition (p<0.05). The increase in PS decreased the glycemic index (eGI), and the lowest eGI was determined as 69.38±1.21 in cake samples containing 4% PS. Except for the 1% PS added sample, the increase in PS caused a decrease in specific volume, % porosity, and increase in hardness, including four days of storage. The addition of PS increased the redness (a*) and decreased the yellow (b*) and brightness (L*) values. The flow behavior index (n) of cake batters containing 1% and 2% PS were similar to the control group. Cakes containing 1% PS received the highest scores in sensory analysis. Although the increase in PS amount negatively affects the textural properties of gluten-free rice flour cakes, it is crucial to increase its bioactive properties and nutritional values and positively contribute to health by reducing the glycemic index.

Abstract 703 | PDF Downloads 155 HTML Downloads 0 XML Downloads 2

References

AACC. (2000). AACC Approved Methods (10th ed.). St. Paul, MN.

Aranibar, C., Aguirre, A., & Borneo, R. (2019). Utilization of a by-product of chia oil extraction as a potential source for value addition in wheat muffins. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 56(9):4189–4197. 10.1007/s13197-019-03889-1

Backes, E., Leichtweis, M.G., Pereira, C., Carocho, M., Barreira, J.C., Genena, A.K., et al. (2020). Ficus carica L. and Prunus spinosa L. extracts as new anthocyanin-based food colorants: a thorough study in confectionery products. Food Chemistry, 333:127457. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127457

Bekiroglu, H., Komurlu, E., Cebi, N., & Sagdic, O. (2022). The effect of using resistant starch on glycemic index and rheological properties of milky pudding: low-glycemic index milky pudding. Latin American Applied Research-An International Journal, 52(1):1–6. 10.52292/j.laar.2022.764

Benzie, I. & Strain, J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma as a measure of “antioxidant power”: The FRAP Assay. Analytical Biochemistry, 239:70–76. 10.1006/abio.1996.0292

Bozdogan, N., Kumcuoglu, S., & Tavman, S. (2019). Investigation of the effects of using quinoa flour on gluten-free cake batters and cake properties. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 56:683–694. 10.1007/s13197-018-3523-1

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.-E., & Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 28(1):25–30. 10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5

Capek, P., & Košťálová, Z. (2022). Isolation, chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of Prunus spinosa L. fruit phenolic polysaccharide-proteins. Carbohydrate Research, 515:108547. 10.1016/j.carres.2022.108547

Dhen, N., Román, L., Rejeb, I.B., Martínez, M.M., Garogouri, M., & Gómez, M. (2016). Particle size distribution of soy flour affecting the quality of enriched gluten-free cakes. LWT Food Science and Technology, 66:179–185. 10.1016/j.lwt.2015.10.032

Di Gioia, F., Renna M., & Santamaria P. (2017). Sprouts, microgreens and “baby leaf” vegetables. Minimally Processed Refrigerated Fruits and Vegetables, pp. 403–432. 10.1007/978-1-4939-7018-6_11

Englyst, K. N., Englyst, H. N., Hudson, G. J., Cole, T. J., & Cummings, J. H. (1999). Rapidly available glucose in foods: an in vitro measurement that reflects the glycemic response. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69(3):448–454. 10.1093/ajcn/69.3.448

Fischer, P., Pollard, M., Erni, P., Marti, I., & Padar, S. (2009). Rheological approaches to food systems. Comptes Rendus Physique, 10(8):740–750. 10.1016/j.crhy.2009.10.016

Gadallah, M.G. (2017). Rheological, organoleptical and quality characteristics of gluten-free rice cakes formulated with sorghum and germinated chickpea flours. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 8(5):535–550. 10.4236/fns.2017.85037

Gagneten, M., Archaina, D.A., Salas, M.P., Leiva, G.E., Salvatori, D.M., & Schebor, C. (2021). Gluten-free cookies added with fibre and bioactive compounds from blackcurrant residue. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 56(4):1734–1740. 10.1111/ijfs.14798

Goñi, L., García-Diz, E., Mañas, F., & Saura-Calixto, F. (1996) Analysis of resistant starch: a method for foods and food products. Food Chemistry, 56:445. 10.1016/0308-8146(95)00222-7

Gökşen, G. & Ekiz, H. İ. (2021). Use of aniseed cold-pressed by-product as a food ingredient in muffin formulation. LWT, 148:111722. 10.1016/j.lwt.2021.111722

Grasso, S., Liu, S., & Methven, L. (2020). Quality of muffins enriched with upcycled defatted sunflower seed flour. LWT, 119:108893. 10.1016/j.lwt.2019.108893

Guimarães, R., Barros, L., Calhelha, R.C., Carvalho, A.M., Queiroz, M.J.R., & Ferreira, I.C. (2014). Bioactivity of different enriched phenolic extracts of wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal: a comparative study. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 69:37–42. 10.1007/s11130-013-0394-5

Guimarães, R., Barros, L., Dueñas, M., Carvalho, A.M., Queiroz, M.J.R., Santos-Buelga, C., et al. (2013). Characterisation of phenolic compounds in wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal. Food Chemistry, 141(4):3721–3730. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.071

Gularte, M.A., de la Hera, E., Gómez, M., & Rosell, C.M. (2012). Effect of different fibers on batter and gluten-free layer cake properties. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 48(2):209–214. 10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03.015

Hedayati, S. & Mazaheri Tehrani, M. (2018). Effect of total replacement of egg by soymilk and lecithin on physical properties of batter and cake. Food Science and Nutrition, 6(4):1154–1161. 10.1002/fsn3.656

Helm, R. & Burks, A. (1996). Hypoallergenicity of rice protein. Cereal Foods World, 41(11):839–843.

Jeong, D. & Chung, H.-J. (2019). Physical, textural and sensory characteristics of legume-based gluten-free muffin enriched with waxy rice flour. Food Science and Biotechnology, 28:87–97. 10.1007/s10068-018-0444-8

Jeong, D., Hong, J.S., Liu, Q., Choi, H.D., & Chung, H.J. (2021). The effects of different levels of heat-treated legume flour on nutritional, physical, textural, and sensory properties of gluten-free muffins. Cereal Chemistry, 98(2):392–404. 10.1002/cche.10379

Karamać, M., Orak, H.H., Amarowicz, R., Orak, A., & Piekoszewski, W. (2018). Phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of wild and cultivated white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds. Food Chemistry, 258:1–7. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.03.041

Kaur, N., Singh, B., & Kaur, A. (2022). Influence of wheatgrass and mung bean microgreens incorporation on physicochemical, textural, sensory, antioxidant properties and phenolic profile of gluten-free eggless rice muffins. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 57(5):3012–3020. 10.1111/ijfs.15625

Kaur, R., & Kaur, M. (2018). Microstructural, physicochemical, antioxidant, textural and quality characteristics of wheat muffins as influenced by partial replacement with ground flaxseed. LWT, 91:278–285. 10.1016/j.lwt.2018.01.059

Kavaz Yuksel, A. (2015). The effects of blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) addition on certain quality characteristics of ice cream. Journal of Food Quality, 38(6):413–421. 10.1111/jfq.12170

Kirbas, Z., Kumcuoglu, S., & Tavman, S. (2019). Effects of apple, orange and carrot pomace powders on gluten-free batter rheology and cake properties. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 56:914–926. 10.1007/s13197-018-03554-z

Koocheki, A., Mortazavi, S.A., Shahidi, F., Razavi, S.M.A., & Taherian, A. (2009). Rheological properties of mucilage extracted from Alyssum homolocarpum seed as a new source of thickening agent. Journal of Food Engineering, 91(3):490–496. 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2008.09.028

Kunachowicz, H., Nadolna, I., Przygoda, B., & Iwanow, K. (2005). Food Composition Tables. PZWL: Warsaw, Poland.

Levent, H., Sayaslan, A., & Yeşil, S. (2022). Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with grape molasses and bioactive rich ingredients. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 64. 10.1590/1678-4324-2021200027

Majzoobi, M., Poor, Z.V., Jamalian, J., & Farahnaky, A. (2016). Improvement of the quality of gluten-free sponge cake using different levels and particle sizes of carrot pomace powder. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 51(6):1369–1377. 10.1111/ijfs.13104

Marakoglu, T., Arslan, D., Özcan, M., & Hacıseferogulları, H. (2005). Proximate composition and technological properties of fresh blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L. subsp dasyphylla (Schur.)) fruits. Journal of Food Engineering, 68(2):137–142. 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.05.024

Marchetti, L., Califano, A.N., & Andres, S.C. (2018). Partial replacement of wheat flour by pecan nut expeller meal on bakery products. Effect on muffins quality. LWT, 95:85–91. 10.1016/j.lwt.2018.04.050

Morales, P., Ferreira, I. C., Carvalho, A.M., Fernández-Ruiz, V., Sánchez-Mata, M.C., Cámara, M., et al. (2013). Wild edible fruits as a potential source of phytochemicals with capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 115 (2) : 176–185. 10.1002/ejlt.201200162

Oliveira, V.R.d., Preto, L.T., de Oliveira Schmidt, H., Komeroski, M., Silva, V.L.d., & de Oliveira Rios, A. (2016). Physicochemical and sensory evaluation of cakes made with passion fruit and orange residues. Journal of Culinary Science and Technology, 14(2):166–175. 10.1080/15428052.2015.1102787

Pinacho, R., Cavero, R.Y., Astiasarán, I., Ansorena, D., & Calvo, M.I. (2015). Phenolic compounds of blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) and influence of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant capacity. Journal of Functional Foods, 19:49–62. 10.1016/j.jff.2015.09.015

Quiles, A., Llorca, E., Schmidt, C., Reißner, A.M., Struck, S., Rohm, H., et al. (2018). Use of berry pomace to replace flour, fat or sugar in cakes. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(6):1579–1587. 10.1111/ijfs.13765

Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggenete, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M., & Rice-Evans, C. (1999). Trolox Assay, International Antioxidant Research Centre, Guy’s, King’s and St Thomas’ School of Biomedical Sciences, Kings College–Guy’s. London, UK.

Rocchetti, G., Chiodelli, G., Giuberti, G., Masoero, F., Trevisan, M., & Lucini, L. (2017). Evaluation of phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity in gluten-free flours. Food Chemistry, 228:367–373. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.01.142

Ronda, F., Oliete, B., Gómez, M., Caballero, P.A., & Pando, V. (2011). Rheological study of layer cake batters made with soybean protein isolate and different starch sources. Journal of Food Engineering, 102(3):272–277. 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.09.001

Rueden, C.T., Schindelin, J., Hiner, M.C., DeZonia, B.E., Walter, A.E., Arena, E.T., et al. (2017). ImageJ2: ImageJ for the next generation of scientific image data. BMC Bioinformatics, 18(1):1–26. 10.1186/s12859-017-1934-z

Saeidi, Z., Nasehi, B., & Jooyandeh, H. (2018). Optimization of gluten-free cake formulation enriched with pomegranate seed powder and transglutaminase enzyme. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55(8):3110–3118. 10.1007/s13197-018-3236-5

Saghafi, Z., Naeli, M.H., Bahmaei, M., Tabibiazar, M., & Zargaraan, A. (2019). Zero-trans cake shortening: effects on batter, texture and sensory characteristics of high ratio cake. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 13(4):3040–3048. 10.1007/s11694-019-00226-0

Salehi, F., Kashaninejad, M., Akbari, E., Sobhani, S.M., & Asadi, F. (2016). Potential of sponge cake making using infrared–hot air dried carrot. Journal of Texture Studies, 47(1):34–39. 10.1111/jtxs.12165

Shevkani, K., Singh, N., Kaur, A., & Rana, J.C. (2015). Structural and functional characterization of kidney bean and field pea protein isolates: a comparative study Food Hydrocolloids, 43:679–689. 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2014.07.024

Sciarini, L.S., Ribotta, P.D., León, A.E., & Pérez, G.T. (2010). Effect of hydrocolloids on gluten-free batter properties and bread quality. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45(11):2306–2312. 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2010.02407.x

Sikora, E., Bieniek, M.I., & Borczak, B. (2013). Composition and antioxidant properties of fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits (Prunus spinosa L.). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria, 12(4):365–372.

Singh, J.P., Kaur, A., Shevkani, K., & Singh, N. (2015). Influence of jambolan (S yzygium cumini) and xanthan gum incorporation on the physicochemical, antioxidant and sensory properties of gluten-free eggless rice muffins. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 50(5):1190–1197. 10.1111/ijfs.12764

Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., & Lamuela-Raventós, R.M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent (Chapter 14). In Methods in Enzymology (Vol. 299, pp. 152–178). Academic Press. 10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1

Sivaramakrishnan, H.P., Senge, B., & Chattopadhyay, P. (2004). Rheological properties of rice dough for making rice bread. Journal of Food Engineering, 62(1):37–45. 10.1016/S0260-8774(03)00169-9

Storck, C.R., da Rosa Zavareze, E., Gularte, M.A., Elias, M.C., Rosell, C.M., & Dias, A.R.G. (2013). Protein enrichment and its effects on gluten-free bread characteristics. LWT Food Science and Technology, 53(1):346–354. 10.1016/j.lwt.2013.02.005

Ozcan, T., & Bayçu, G. (2008). Fatty acid and amino acid profiles in the fruits of Prunus spinosa L. subsp. dasyphylla (Schur) Domin from Europe-in-Turkey.

Turabi, E., Sumnu, G., & Sahin, S. (2008). Rheological properties and quality of rice cakes formulated with different gums and an emulsifier blend. Food Hydrocolloids, 22(2):305–312. 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2006.11.016

Yaman, M., Sargın, H.S., & Mızrak, Ö.F. (2019). Free sugar content, in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals commonly consumed in Turkey: an evaluation of nutritional quality. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 135:1082–1087. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.06.037

Yeşilkanat, N., & Savlak, N. (2021). Utilization of persimmon powder in gluten-free cakes and determination of their physical, chemical, functional and sensory properties. Food Science and Technology, 41:637–645. 10.1590/fst.31020