Technological quality, bioactive features, and glycemic index of gluten-free cakes formulated with lyophilized wild Prunus spinosa fruit

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Elif Cakir
Görkem Ozülkü
Hatice Bekiroglu
Muhammet Arici
Osman Sagdic


antioxidant, gluten-free cake, glycemic index, phenolic, Prunus spinosa, rice flour


This study evaluated the effects of rice flour cakes enriched with wild fruit Prunus spinosa powder (PS) on techno-functional, nutrition, and eating quality. PS increases the cakes’ ash, protein, and moisture values. Total phenolic content increased from 35.91±0.25 to 73.39±0.58 mg GAE g-1, and gluten-free cakes’ antioxidant capacity markedly increased with the increasing level of PS powder addition (p<0.05). The increase in PS decreased the glycemic index (eGI), and the lowest eGI was determined as 69.38±1.21 in cake samples containing 4% PS. Except for the 1% PS added sample, the increase in PS caused a decrease in specific volume, % porosity, and increase in hardness, including four days of storage. The addition of PS increased the redness (a*) and decreased the yellow (b*) and brightness (L*) values. The flow behavior index (n) of cake batters containing 1% and 2% PS were similar to the control group. Cakes containing 1% PS received the highest scores in sensory analysis. Although the increase in PS amount negatively affects the textural properties of gluten-free rice flour cakes, it is crucial to increase its bioactive properties and nutritional values and positively contribute to health by reducing the glycemic index.

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