Main Article Content
edible flowers, phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidants, mineral composition
Fourteen edible flowers used in cooking were investigated in order to obtain quantitative information on the phytochemicals content and mineral composition. Additionally, the antioxidant capacity was also evaluated by employing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. These analyses were performed in extracts prepared from flowers and vegetative parts and the results showed that contents of total phenolics, ortho-diphenols and flavonoids were high in flower extracts. Results also revealed considerable variation among the fourteen edible flowers extracts in total phenols (9.89-79.78 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight), orthodiphenols (14.90-238.61 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight) and flavonoids (2.62-56.86 mg catechin equivalents/g of dry weight). Correlation analysis indicated a moderately positive correlation between antioxidant activity and the contents of phenolic and ortho-diphenol compounds. In addition, the results of this study also showed that all edible flowers are major sources of mineral elements, especially potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium with an average concentration of 5,861, 542.0, 274.2 and 218.0 mg/100 g of dry weigh, respectively. Flowers also contain appreciable amounts of essential trace metals, such as zinc, selenium and manganese. Data obtained confirmed that edible flowers are good sources of minerals and phytochemicals, namely antioxidants, therefore their inclusion in cooking can provide health benefits.
Benvenuti, S., Bortolotti, E. and Maggini, R., 2016. Antioxidant power, anthocyanin content and organoleptic performance of edible flowers. Scientia Horticulturae 199: 170-177.
Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E. and Berset, C.L., 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT – Food Science and Technology 28(1): 25-30.
Cai, Y.-Z., Sun, M., Xing, J., Luo, Q. and Corke, H., 2006. Structure-radical scavenging activity relationships of phenolics compounds from traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Life Science 78(25): 2872-2888.
European Commission (EC), 2006. Regulation No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union L 364: 5-24.
Fernandes, L., Casal, S., Pereira, J.A., Saraiva, J.A. and Ramalho, E., 2017. Edible flowers: a review of the nutritional, antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and effects on human health. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 60: 38-50.
Franzen, F.L., Lidório, H.F. and Oliveira, M.S., 2018. Edible flowers considerations as ingredients in food, medicine and cosmetics. Journal of Analytical and Pharmaceutical Research 7(3): 271-273.
Gião, M.S., González-Sanjosé, M.L., Rivero-Pérez, M.D., Pereira, C.I., Pintado, M.E. and Malcata, F.X., 2007. Infusions of Portuguese medicinal plants: dependence of final antioxidant capacity and phenol content on extraction features. Journal of the Science of the Food and Agriculture 87(14): 2638-2647.
Govers, C., Kasikci, M.B., Van der Sluis, A.A. and Mes, J.J., 2018. Review of the health effects of berries and their phytochemicals on the digestive and immune systems. Nutrition Review 76(1): 29-46.
Guedes, C.I., Oppolzer, D., Barros, A.I. and Wilson, C.P., 2019. Impact of cooking method on phenolic composition and antioxidant potential of four varieties of Phaseolus vugaris L. and Glycine max L. LWT – Food Science and Technology 103: 238-246.
Guiné, R.P.F. and Gonçalves, F.J., 2016. Bioactive compounds in some culinary aromatic herbs and their effects on human health. Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry 16(11): 855-866.
Kaisoon, O., Siriamornpun, S., Weerapreeyakul, N. and Meeso, N., 2011. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of edible flowers from Thailand. Journal of Functional Foods3(2): 88-99.
Kumar, S. and Pandey, A.K., 2013. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview. The Scientific Word Journal, Article ID: 162750.
Lesvesque, M. and Vendette, E.D., 1971. Selenium determination in soil and plant materials. Canadian Journal Soil Science 51(1): 85-93.
Lima, G.P.P., Vianello, F., Corrêa, C.R., Campos, R.A.S. and Bourguini, M.G., 2014. Polyphenols in fruits and vegetables and its effect on human health. Food and Nutrition Sciences 5(11): 1065-1082.
Liu, R.H., 2013. Dietary bioactive compounds and their health implications. Journal of Food Science 78(S1): A18-A25.
Loizzo, M.R., Bonesi, M., Menichini, F., Tenuta, M.C., Leporini, M. and Tundis, R., 2016. Antioxidant and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes potential of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae) peel, leaves and pulp fresh and processed. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 71: 381-387.
Lu, B., Li, M. and Yin, R., 2016. Phytochemical content, health benefits, and toxicology of common edible flowers: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 56: S130-S148.
Navarro-González, I., González-Barrio, R., García-Valverde, V., Bautista-Ortín, A.B. and Periago, M.J., 2015. Nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity in edible flowers: characterization of phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16(1): 805-822.
Pandey, K.B. and Rizvi, S.I., 2009. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxididative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2(5): 270-278.
Pantelidis, G.E., Vasilakakis, M., Manganaris, G.A. and Diamantidis, G., 2007. Antioxidant capacity, phenol, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid contents in raspberries, blackberries, red currents, gooseberries and Cornelian cherries. Food Chemistry 102(3): 777-783.
Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M. and Rice-Evans, C., 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 26(9-10): 1231-1237.
Rop, O., Mlcek, J., Jurikova, T., Neugebauerova, J. and Vabkova, J., 2012. Edible flowers – a new promising source of mineral elements in human nutrition. Molecules 17(6): 6672-6683.
Santos, S.C., Guiné, R.P. and Barros, A., 2014. Effect of drying temperatures on the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of pears of Rocha variety (Pyrus communis L.). Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 8(2): 105-112.
Singleton, V.L. and Rossi, J.A., 1999. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 16(3): 144-158.
Stathopoulou, M., Kanon,i S., Papanikolaou, G., Antonopoulous, S., Nomikos, T. and Dedoussis, G., 2012. Mineral intake. Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science 108: 201-236.
Stratil, P., Klejdus, B. and Kubán, V., 2006. Determination of total content of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in vegetables – evaluation of spectrophotometric methods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54(3): 607-616.
Uttara, B., Singh, A.V., Zamboni, P. and Mahajan, R.T., 2009. Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases: a review of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapeutic options.Current Neuropharmacology 7(1): 65-74.
Wang, F., Miao, M., Xia, H., Yang, L.G., Wang, S.K. and Sun, G.J., 2016. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts from 12 Chinese edible flowers in vitro and in vivo. Food and Nutrition Research 61(1): 1265324.
Wojdylo, A., Oszmianski, J. and Czemerys, R., 2007. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in 32 selected herbs. Food Chemistry 105(3): 940-949.
World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization (WHO/FAO), 2004. Fruit and vegetables for health: report of a joint FAO/WHO workshop. Kobe, Japan, pp. 9.
Xiong, L., Yang, J., Jiang, Y., Lu, B., Hu, Y., Zhou, F., Mao, S. and Shen, C., 2014. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of 10 common edible flowers from China. Journal of Food Science 79(4): C517-C525.
Zeng, Y., Deng, M., Lv, Z. and Peng, Y., 2014. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of extracts from 19 Chinese edible flowers. SpringPlus 3: 315-319.
Zheng, W. and Wang, S.Y., 2001. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49(11): 5165-5170.
Zhishen, J., Mengcheng, T. and Jianming, W., 1999. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chemistry 64(4): 555-559.