Main Article Content
fermented-chickpea liquor, chickpea yeast, whole-grain wheat flour, bread, quality
Whole-grain wheat flour bread is superior to refined white-flour bread in terms of nutritional quality; yet, it is often time poor in loaf volume, texture, flavour and colour. Being a traditional approach, fermented-chickpea liquor (FCL) or chickpea yeast was claimed to improve sensory properties of bakery products. In this study, effects of FCL on quality characteristics of whole-grain wheat flour bread were investigated. For this purpose, FCL was incorporated into bread formulations at 15, 30 and 45% levels, based on whole-grain wheat flour and substituted with water. Dough mixing, loaf volume, texture, colour and flavour of the control and FCL-containing breads were measured. Additionally, certain microbiological tests and antioxidant activity measurements were carried out. Compared to the control, FCL incorporation into whole-grain wheat flour bread formulations at 30 and 45% levels, respectively, increased loaf volume about 10 and 25%, decreased crumb hardness approximately 10 and 15%, and enhanced antioxidant activity (about 10%) of whole-grain wheat flour breads. However, FCL usage had limited effect on flavour and colour. The best results were obtained when 30 and 45% FCL were used in the breads of whole-grain wheat flour.
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