Effects of fermented-chickpea liquor (chickpea yeast) on whole-grain wheat flour bread properties

Main Article Content

A. Sayaslan
N. Şahin

Keywords

fermented-chickpea liquor, chickpea yeast, whole-grain wheat flour, bread, quality

Abstract

Whole-grain wheat flour bread is superior to refined white-flour bread in terms of nutritional quality; yet, it is often time poor in loaf volume, texture, flavour and colour. Being a traditional approach, fermented-chickpea liquor (FCL) or chickpea yeast was claimed to improve sensory properties of bakery products. In this study, effects of FCL on quality characteristics of whole-grain wheat flour bread were investigated. For this purpose, FCL was incorporated into bread formulations at 15, 30 and 45% levels, based on whole-grain wheat flour and substituted with water. Dough mixing, loaf volume, texture, colour and flavour of the control and FCL-containing breads were measured. Additionally, certain microbiological tests and antioxidant activity measurements were carried out. Compared to the control, FCL incorporation into whole-grain wheat flour bread formulations at 30 and 45% levels, respectively, increased loaf volume about 10 and 25%, decreased crumb hardness approximately 10 and 15%, and enhanced antioxidant activity (about 10%) of whole-grain wheat flour breads. However, FCL usage had limited effect on flavour and colour. The best results were obtained when 30 and 45% FCL were used in the breads of whole-grain wheat flour.

Abstract 108 | PDF Downloads 66

References

American Association of Cereal Chemists International (AACC), 2000. AACC approved methods (10th Ed.). AACC International, St. Paul, MN, USA.
Banu, I., Vasilean, I. and Aprodu, I., 2010. Effects of lactic acid fermentation on antioxidant capacity of rye sourdough and bread. Food Science and Technology Research 16: 571-576.
Baykara, P., 2006. Using of traditional chickpea leavener in the manufacture of industrial white wheat bread [Geleneksel Nohut Mayas?n?n Endüstriyel Beyaz Bu?day Unu Ekme?i Üretiminde Kullan?m?]. MSc thesis, Trakya University, Tekirda?, Turkey.
Belobrajdic, D.P. and Bird, A.R., 2013. The potential role of phytochemicals in wholegrain cereals for the prevention of type-2 diabetes. Nutrition Journal 12: 62-67.
Beta, T., Nam, S., Dexter, J.E. and Sapirstein, H.D., 2005. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of pearled wheat and roller-milled fractions. Cereal Chemistry 82: 390-393.
Brummer, J.M. and Lorenz, K., 1991. European developments in wheat sourdough. Cereal Foods World 36: 310-314.
Cauvain, S.P. and Young, L.S., 2009. The ICC handbook of cereals, flour, dough & products testing: methods of applications. DEStech Publications Inc., Lancaster, USA, 498 pp.
Çebi, K., 2009. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from chickpea yeast and dough [Nohut Mayas? ve Hamurundan Laktik Asit Bakterilerinin ?zolasyonu ve ?dentifikasyonu]. MSc thesis, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey.
Çebi, K., 2014. The effects of lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from chickpea fermentation/dough products on volatile profile and other quality parameters of bread [Nohut Mayas?/Hamurundan ?zole Edilen Laktik Asit Bakteri Su?lar?n?n Ekme?in Uçucu Profili ve Di?er Baz? Kalite Parametreleri Üzerine Etkileri]. PhD thesis, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey.
Clarke, C., Schober, T.J. and Arendt, E.K., 2002. Effect of single strain and traditional mixed strain starter cultures in rheological properties of wheat dough and bread quality. Cereal Chemistry 79: 640-647.
Clemente, A., Vioque, R.S., Vique, J., Bautista, J. and Millan, F., 1998. Effect of cooking on protein quality of chickpea (Cicer arietnum) seeds. Food Chemistry 62: 1-6.
Corsetti, A., Gobbetti, M., Balestrieri, F., Paoletti, F., Russi, L. and Rossi, J., 1998a. Sourdough lactic acid bacteria effects on bread firmness and staling. Journal of Food Science 63: 347-351.
Corsetti, A., Gobbetti, M., De Marco, B., Balestrieri, F., Paoletti, F., Russi, L. and Rossi, J., 2000. Combined effect of sourdough lactic acid bacteria and additives on bread firmness and staling. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48: 3044-3051.
Corsetti, A., Gobbetti, M., Rossi, J. and Damiani, P., 1998b. Antimould activity of sourdough lactic acid bacteria, identification of a mixture of organic acids produced by Lactobacillus sanfrancisco CB1. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 50: 253-256.
Crowley, P., Schober, T., Clarke, C. and Arendt, E., 2002. The effect of storage time on textural and crumb grain characteristics of sourdough wheat bread. European Food Research Technology 214: 489-496.
Dal Bello, F., Clarke, C.I., Ryan, L.A.M., Ulmer, H., Ström, K., Sjögren, J., Van Sinderen, D., Schnürer, J. and Arendt, E.K., 2007. Improvement of the quality and shelf life of wheat bread by using the antifungal strain Lactobacillus plantarum FST 1.7. Journal of Cereal Science 45: 309-318.
Dalie, D.K.D., Deschamps, A.M. and Richard-Forget, F., 2010. Lactic acid bacteria – potential for control of mould growth and mycotoxins: a review. Food Control 21: 370-380.
De Angelis, M., Rizzella, C.G., Alfonsi, G., Arnould, P., Coppelle, S., Tossut, P., Di Cagno, R. and Gobbetti, M., 2007. Use of lactobacilli and oat fibre to decrease glycemic index of white-wheat bread. British Journal of Nutrition 98: 1196-1205.
De Vuyst, L. and Vandamme, E.J., 1994. Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria, microbiology, genetics and applications. Blackie Academic and Profesional, New York, NY, USA.
Desphande, S.S. and Damodaran, S., 1990. Food legumes: chemistry and technology. In: Pomeranz, Y. (ed.) Advances in cereal science and technology (Vol. 10). American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN, USA, pp. 147-241.
Dordevic, T.M., Marincovic, S.S. and Brankovic S.D., 2010. Effect of fermentation on antioxidant properties of some cereals and pseudo cereals. Food Chemistry 119: 957-963.
Dykes, L. and Rooney, L.W., 2007. Phenolic compounds in cereal grains and their health benefits. Cereal Foods World 52: 105-111.
Elgün, A., Ertugay, Z., Certel, M. and Kotanc?lar, G., 2002. Analytical quality control in cereals and products – laboratory application guide [Tah?l ve Ürünlerinde Analitik Kalite Kontrolü ve Laboratuvar Uygulama Klavuzu]. Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey.
Foschia, M., Horstmann, W.S., Arendt, E.K. and Zannini, E., 2016. Legumes as functional ingredients in gluten-free bakery and pasta products. Food Science and Technology 8: 1-22.
Gordon, D.T. and Wrigley, C., 2004. Whole-grain versus refined products. In: Wringley, C., Corke, H. and Walker, C.E. (eds.) Encyclopedia of grain science. Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, pp. 424-429.
Hanc?o?lu-S?k?l?, Ö., 2003. Investigation of microbiological and flavour characteristics of chickpea sweet dough [Nohut Mayas?n?n Mikrobiyolojik ve Lezzet Karakteristiklerinin Ara?t?r?lmas?]. PhD thesis, Ege University, ?zmir, Turkey.
Hatzikamari, M., Kyriakidis, N., Tzanetakis, N., Biliaderis, C.G. and Tzanetaki, E.L., 2007a. Biochemical changes during a submerged chickpea fermentation used as a leavening agent for bread production. European Food Research and Technology 224: 715-723.
Hatzikamari, M., Yiangou, M., Tzanetakis, N. and Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, E., 2007b. Changes in numbers and kinds of bacteria during a chickpea submerged fermentation used as a leavening agent for bread production. International Journal of Food Microbiology 116: 37-43.
Hebeda, R.E., Bowles, L.K. and Teague, W.M., 1990. Developments in enzymes for retarding staling of baked goods. Cereal Foods World 35: 453-457.
Hemdane, S., Jacobs, J.P., Dornez, E., Verspreet, J., Delcour, J A. and Courtin, M.C., 2016. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bran in bread making: a critical review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 15: 28-42.
Katina, K., Salmankallio-Marttila, M., Partanen, R., Forssel, P. and Autio, K., 2006. Effects of sourdough and enzymes on staling of high-fibre wheat bread. LWT – Food Science and Technology 39: 479-491.
Katsaboxakis, K. and Mallidis, K., 1996. The microflora of soak water during natural fermentation of coarsely ground chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds. Letters in Applied Microbiology 23: 261-265.
Kumar, P., Yadava, R.K., Gollen, B., Kumar, S., Verma, R.K. and Yadav, S., 2011. Nutritional contents and medicinal properties of wheat: a review. Life Sciences and Medicine Research 22: 1-10.
Lavermicocca, P., Valerio, F., Evidente, A., Lazzaroni, S., Corsetti, A. and Gobbetti, M., 2000. Purification and characterization of novel antifungal compounds from the sourdough Lactobacillus plantarumstrain 21B. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66: 4084-4090.
Liljeberg, H. and Björck, I., 1994. Bioavailability of starch in bread products: postprandial glucose and insulin responses in health subjects and in vitro resistant starch content. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48: 151-164.
Liljeberg, H.G.M., Lönner, C.H. and Björck, I.M.E., 1995. Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans. Journal of Nutrition 125: 1503-1511.
Narl?o?lu, G., 2013. Investigation of some properties of traditional chickpea yeast and its use in pastry [Geleneksel Nohut Mayas?n?n ve Üretiminde Kullan?ld??? Po?açalar?n Baz? Özelliklerinin ?ncelenmesi]. MSc thesis, Kahramanmara? Sütçü ?mam University, Kahramanmara?, Turkey.
Okarter, N. and Liu, R.H., 2010. Health benefits of whole grain phytochemicals. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 50: 193-208.
Özkaya, B., 1992. The effects of some kind of starter cultures on the rheology of dough and the quality of bread [Starter Kültür Olarak Paket Mayas? Eksi Hamur Mayas? ve Nohut Mayas?n?n Hamurun Reolojik Özellikleri ve Ekme?in Kalitesine Etkileri]. PhD thesis, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.
Pa?a, R.E., 2010. A research on the production of whole wheat bread [Tam Bu?day Ekme?i Üretimi Üzerine Bir Ara?t?rma]. MSc thesis, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey.
Pyler, E.J., 1988. Baking science and technology (3rd Ed.). Sosland Publishing, Kansas City, MO, USA.
Saad, A.M., Ragab, A., Elmassry, R.A., Wahdan, K.K.M. and Ramadan, M.F., 2015. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) steep liquor as a leavening agent: effect on dough rheology and sensory properties of bread. Acta Periodica Technologica 46: 91-102.
Schnürer, J. and Magnusson, J., 2005. Antifungal lactic acid bacteria as preservatives. Trends in Food Science and Technology 16: 70-78.
?engün, Y.I., 2011. Lactic acid bacteria used in the production of fermented food. Biological Diversity and Conversation 4: 42-53.
Shah, A.R., Shah, R.K. and Madamwar, D., 2006. Improvement of the quality of whole wheat bread by supplementation of xylanase from Aspergillus foetidus. Bioresource Technology 97: 2047-2053.
Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R. and Lamuela-Raventos, R.M., 1999. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methods in Enzymology 299: 152-178.
Slavin, J., 2004. Whole grains and human health. Nutrition Research Reviews 17: 99-110.
Sudha, M.L. and Rao, V.G., 2008. Influence of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose on the rheological and microstructural characteristic of whole wheat flour dough and quality of Puri. Journal of Texture Studies 40: 172-191.
Thiele, C., Gänzle, G. and Vogel, R.F., 2002. Contribution of sourdough lactobacilli, yeast, and cereal enzymes to the generation of amino acids in dough relevant for bread flavour. Cereal Chemistry 79: 45-51.
Tülbek, M.C., Hall, C. and Schwarz, J.G., 2003. The use of fermented chickpea on dough rheology and wheat pan bread quality. In: Abstracts of IFT Annual Meeting, July 12-16, 2003, Chicago, IL, USA. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/y8mv7mr2