Effect of thermal treatment on microbiological, physicochemical and structural properties of high pressure homogenised hazelnut beverage

Main Article Content

I. Atalar
O. Gul
M. Mortas
L.B. Gul
F.T. Saricaoglu
F. Yazici


by-products, fruit crops, hazelnut beverage, thermal stability, microstructure


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low (65, 72 and 85 °C) and high (105, 110 and 115 °C) temperature heat treatment on the microbiological, physical and chemical properties of high pressure homogenised hazelnut beverage. The total number of aerobic bacteria decreased with heat treatment and was not detected after 72 °C and higher heat treatments. The pH value of hazelnut beverage did not change significantly as a function of temperature (P>0.05). The total soluble content and soluble protein values of the low or high heat treated hazelnut beverage were significantly decreased after the heat treatments considered non-thermal treated ones, and also serum separation was adversely affected (P<0.05). Changes in colour components showed an increase in browning of hazelnut beverage by thermal treatment. The viscosity values of the samples significantly increased depending on the temperature except for the 65 °C treatment (P<0.05), and Herschel Bulkley’s model was sufficient to describe the flow behaviour. Heat treatment at 85 °C for 5 min and higher temperatures led to an increase in particle size due to protein denaturation. Our results showed that the ideal temperature-time parameters were determined as 20 min at 72 °C and 1 min at 105 °C, based on microbiological results and better physicochemical properties.

Abstract 122 | PDF Downloads 61


Ahmadian-Kouchaksaraei, Z., Varidi, M., Varidi, M.J. and Pourazarang, H., 2014. Influence of processing conditions on the physicochemical and sensory properties of sesame milk: a novel nutritional beverage. LWT – Food Science and Technology 57: 299-305.
Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 1995. Official methods of analysis, 16th edition. AOAC, Arlington, VA, USA.
Bernat, N., Chafer, M., Chiralt, A. and Gonzalez-Martinez, C., 2014a. Vegetable milks and their fermented derivative products. International Journal of Food Studies 3: 93-124.
Bernat, N., Cháfer, M., Chiralt, A. and González-Martínez, C., 2014b. Hazelnutmilk fermentation using probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosusGG and inulin. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 49: 2553-2562.
Bernat, N., Cháfer, M., Rodríguez-García, J., Chiralt, A. and González-Martínez, C., 2015. Effect of high pressure homogenisation and heat treatment on physical properties and stability of almond and hazelnut milks. LWT – Food Science and Technology 62: 488-496.
Bortnowska, G., Krzemi?ska, N. and Mojka, K., 2013. Effects of waxy maize and potato starches on the stability and physicochemical properties of model sauces prepared with fresh beef meat. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 48: 2668-2675.
Codina-Torrella, I., Guamis, B., Zamora, A., Quevedo, J.M. and Trujillo, A.J., 2018. Microbiological stabilization of tiger nuts’ milk beverage using ultra-high pressure homogenization. A preliminary study on microbial shelf-life extension. Food Microbiology 69: 143-150.
Devi, A.F., Buckow, R., Singh, T., Hemar, Y. and Kasapis, S., 2015. Colour change and proteolysis of skim milk during high pressure thermal-processing. Journal of Food Engineering 147: 102-110.
Dhakal, S., Giusti, M.M. and Balasubramaniam, V.M., 2016. Effect of high pressure processing on dispersive and aggregative properties of almond milk. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 96: 3821-3830.
Dhakal, S., Liu, C., Zhang, Y., Roux, K.H., Sathe, S.K. and Balasubramaniam, V.M., 2014. Effect of high pressure processing on the immunoreactivity of almond milk. Food Research International 62: 215-222.
Elliott, A.J., Dhakal, A., Datta, N. and Deeth, H.C., 2003. Heat-induced changes in UHT milks – Part 1. Australian Journal of Dairy Technology 58(1): 3-10.
Felfoul, I., Beaucher, E., Cauty, C., Attia, H., Gaucheron, F. and Ayadi, M.A., 2016. Deposit generation during camel and cow milk heating: microstructure and chemical composition. Food and Bioprocess Technology 9: 1268-1275.
Ferragut, V., Hernandez-Herrero, M., Veciana-Nogues, M.T., Borras-Suarez, M., Gonzalez-Linares, J., Vidal-Carou, M.C. and Guamis, B., 2015. Ultra-high-pressure homogenization (UHPH) system for producing high-quality vegetable-based beverages: physicochemical, microbiological, nutritional and toxicological characteristics. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 95: 953-961.
Gan, R.-Y., Lui, W.-Y., Wu, K. and Corke, H., 2016. Thermal treatments affect the polyphenol profile and increase antioxidant capacity in five varieties of edible bean milks. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 51: 954-961.
Genovese, D.B. and Rao, M.A., 2005. Components of vane yield stress of structured food dispersions. Journal of Food Science 70: e498-e504.
Giacometti, F., Bardasi, L., Merialdi, G., Morbarigazzi, M., Federici, S., Piva, S. and Serraino, A., 2016. Shelf life of donkey milk subjected to different treatment and storage conditions. Journal of Dairy Science 99: 4291-4299.
Gul, O., Atalar, I., Mortas, M., Saricaoglu, F.T. and Yaz?c?, F., 2018a. Application of TOPSIS methodology to determine optimum hazelnut cake concentration and high pressure homogenization condition for hazelnut milk production based on physicochemical, structural and sensory properties. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 12(4): 2404-2415.
Gul, O., Atalar, I., Saricaoglu, F.T. and Yazici, F., 2018b. Effect of multi-pass high pressure homogenization on physicochemical properties of hazelnut milk from hazelnut cake: an investigation by response surface methodology. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 42(5): e13615.
Gul, O., Saricaoglu, F.T., Mortas, M., Atalar, I. and Yazici, F., 2017. Effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on microstructure and rheological properties of hazelnut milk. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 41: 411-420.
International Dairy Federation (IDF), 1991. Peroxide index determination. IDF Standard 74A. IDF, Brussels, Belgium.
Kasera, R., Singh, A.B., Kumar, R., Lavasa, S., Prasad, K.N. and Arora, N., 2012. Effect of thermal processing and ?-irradiation on allergenicity of legume proteins. Food and Chemical Toxicology 50: 3456-3461.
Kubo, M.T.K., Augusto, P.E.D. and Cristianini, M., 2013. Effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on the physical stability of tomato juice. Food Research International 51: 170-179.
Kuo, H.Y., Chen, S.H. and Yeh, A.I., 2014. Preparation and physicochemical properties of whole-bean soymilk. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 62: 742-749.
Kurajdová, K., Táborecká-Petrovi?ová, J. and Kaš?áková, A., 2015. Factors influencing milk consumption and purchase behavior – evidence from Slovakia. Procedia Economics and Finance 34: 573-580.
Kwok, K.C., Liang, H.H. and Niranjan, K., 2002. Optimizing conditions for thermal processes of soy milk. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 50: 4834-4838.
Makinen, O.E., Wanhalinna, V., Zannini, E. and Arendt, E.K., 2016. Foods for special dietary needs: non-dairy plant-based milk substitutes and fermented dairy-type products. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 56: 339-349.
Poliseli-Scopel, F.H., Hernández-Herrero, M., Guamis, B. and Ferragut, V., 2012. Comparison of ultra high pressure homogenization and conventional thermal treatments on the microbiological, physical and chemical quality of soymilk. LWT – Food Science and Technology 46: 42-48.
Qin, Z., Guo, X., Lin, Y., Chen, J., Liao, X., Hu, X. and Wu, J., 2013. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on physicochemical and functional properties of walnut (Juglans regia L.) protein isolate. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 93: 1105-1111.
Robinson, H.W. and Hogden, C.G., 1940. The biuret reaction in the determination of serum proteins. 2. Measurements made by a Duboscq colorimeter compared with values obtained by the Kjeldahl procedure. Journal of Biological Chemistry 135: 727-731.
Sakkas, L., Moutafi, A., Moschopoulou, E. and Moatsou, G., 2014. Assessment of heat treatment of various types of milk. Food Chemistry 159: 293-301.
Shimoyamada, M., Tsushima, N., Tsuzuki, K., Asao, H. and Yamachi, R., 2008. Effect of heat treatment on dispersion stability of soymilk and heat denaturation of soymilk protein. Food Science and Technology Research 14: 32-38.
Silva, F.M. and Silva, C.L.M., 1999. Colour changes in thermally processed cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) puree: critical times and kinetics modelling. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 34: 87-94.
Sun, A. and Gunasekaran, S., 2009. Yield stress in foods: measurements and applications. International Journal of Food Properties 12: 70-101.
Tabilo-Munizaga, G. and Barbosa-Cánovas, G.V., 2005. Rheology for the food industry. Journal of Food Engineering 67: 147-156.
Tsai, M.-J., Cheng, M.-C., Chen, B.-Y. and Wang, C.-Y., 2018. Effect of high-pressure processing on immunoreactivity, microbial and physicochemical properties of hazelnut milk. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 53: 1672-1680.
Turan, D., Altay, F. and Capanoglu Guven, E., 2015. The influence of thermal processing on emulsion properties of defatted hazelnut flour. Food Chemistry 167: 100-106.
Valencia-Flores, D.C., Hernandez-Herrero, M., Guamis, B. and Ferragut, V., 2013. Comparing the effects of ultra-high-pressure homogenization and conventional thermal treatments on the microbiological, physical, and chemical quality of almond beverages. Journal of Food Science 78: E199-205.