Effects of wheat kernel size on hardness and various quality characteristics

Main Article Content

O. Acar
T. Sanal
H. Köksel

Keywords

kernel size, hardness, SKCS, pearling index, particle size index

Abstract

Kernel size and hardness are important for millers and they should be controlled prior to milling. The kernel hardness also determines end-use quality of wheat. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of kernel size on wheat kernel characteristics, especially kernel hardness, milling yield and various flour quality properties. Three bread wheat varieties (Bayraktar 2000, Demir 2000 and Ikizce 96) were used after separating them into three kernel size groups. As expected, 1000 kernel weight significantly (P<0.05) decreased with decreasing kernel size. Results of three hardness tests (single kernel characterisation system, pearling index and particle size index) were parallel and hardness of the samples significantly increased (P<0.05) as the kernel size decreased. Flour yields were generally lower in the smaller kernels. However, the decrease in flour yield was not significant for cv Bayraktar 2000. In two cultivars protein content and wet gluten had a significant (P<0.05) decreasing tendency with decreasing kernel size while those of the third cultivar were not affected by kernel size. Sedimentation values of the samples were not affected by kernel size. Overall, small kernels did not seem to influence flour quality while they generally had a detrimental effect on milling yield

Abstract 68 | PDF Downloads 75

References

American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC), 2000. Approved methods, 10th edition. Method No: 38-12A, 46-30, 55-30.01. AACC, St. Paul, MN, USA.
Baasandorj, T., Ohm, J.B., Manthey, F. and Simsek, S., 2015. Effect of kernel size and mill type on protein, milling yield, and baking quality of hard red spring wheat. Cereal Chemistry 92: 81-87.
Baljeet, S.Y., Yogesh, S. and Ritika, B.Y., 2017. Physicochemical and rheological properties of Indian wheat varieties of Triticum aestivum. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 9: 369-381.
Delcour, J.A. and Hoseney, C., 2010. Principles of cereal science and technology, 3rd edition. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN, USA, 270 pp.
Dizlek, H. and Özer, M.S., 2016. Effects of sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps) damage ratio on physical, chemical, and technological characteristics of wheat. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 8: 145-156.
Dizlek, H. and Özer, M.S., 2017. Improvement of physical, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps) damaged wheat by blending. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 9: 31-39.
Dziki, D. and Laskowski, J., 2005. Wheat kernel physical properties and milling process. Acta Agrophysica 6: 59-71.
Dziki, D. and Laskowski, J., 2004. Influence of kernel size on grinding process of wheat at respective grinding stages. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Science 13(54): 29-33.
Gaines, C.S., Finney, P.F., Fleege, L.M. and Andrews, L.C., 1996. Predicting a hardness measurement using the single-kernel characterisation system. Cereal Chemistry 73: 278-283.
Gaines, C.S., Finney, P.L. and Andrews, L.C., 1997. Influence of kernel size and shriveling on soft wheat milling and baking quality. Cereal Chemistry 74: 700-704.
International Association for Cereal Science and Technology (ICC), 2008. ICC standards, standard no116/1. ICC, Vienna, Austria, 129 pp.
Li, Y.Z. and Posner, E.S., 1987. The influence of kernel size on wheat millability. Association of Operative Millers Technical Bulletins, November, 5089 pp.
Morgan, B.C., Dexter, J.E. and Preston, K.R., 2000. Relationship of kernel size of flour water absorption for Canada Western Red Spring wheat. Cereal Chemistry 77: 286-292.
Morris, C.F., 2002. Puroindolines: the molecular genetic basis of wheat grain hardness. Plant Molecular Biology 48: 633-647.
Ohm, J.B., Chung, O.K. and Deyoe, C.W., 1998. Single-kernel characteristics of hard winter wheats in relation to milling and baking quality. Cereal Chemistry 75: 156-161.
Osborne, B.G. and Anderssen, R.S., 2003. Review: single kernel characterization principles and applications. Cereal Chemistry 80: 613-622.
Osborne, B.G., Kotwal, Z., Blakeney, A.B., O’Brien, L., Shah, S. and Fearn, T., 1997. Application of the single-kernel characterisation system to wheat receiving testing and quality prediction. Cereal Chemistry 74: 467-470.
Posner, E.S. and Hibbs, A.N., 1997. Wheat: the raw material. Wheat flour milling, 2nd edition. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN, USA, pp. 1-46.
Sissons, M.J., Osborne, B.G., Hare, R.A., Sissons, S.A. and Jackson, R., 2000. Application of the single-kernel characterization system to durum wheat testing and quality prediction. Cereal Chemistry 77: 4-10.
Sutton, K.H., Hay, R.L. and Mouat, C.H., 1992. The effect of kernel weight on the assessment of baking performance of wheats by RP-HPLC of glutenin subunits from single grain. Journal of Cereal Science 15: 253-265.
Szabó, B.P., Gyimes, E., Véha, A. and Horváth, Z.H., 2016. Flour quality and kernel hardness connection in winter wheat. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae Alimentaria 9: 33-40.
Williams, P., El-Haramein, F.J., Nakkoul, H. and Rihavi, S., 1988. Crop quality evaluation methods and guidelines. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria, 145 pp.