Main Article Content
processing, composition, trace metals, standards, cassava products
The chemical and trace metal composition of six groups of commercial dried cassava products in Nigeria (gari, starch, tapioca, fufu, lafun and high-quality cassava flour) were evaluated to ascertain quality standard compliance and safety for human consumption. In total, 340 samples of the dried products collected based on their popularity in the Humid forest (92), Derived savannah (234) and Southern Guinea savannah (14) agroecologies were analysed using standard analytical methods. The moisture, cyanogenic potential (CNP), ash and crude fibre content of the samples were significantly different (P<0.05). Product type or agroecology of the products did not have a significant influence on the acidity, pH or trace metal (copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn)) content. Samples from the Humid forest exhibited the highest average moisture (12.80%), pH (6.62), Zn (5.01 mg/kg) and Cu (3.16 mg/kg) content; Southern Guinea savannah samples had the highest CNP (9.06 mg/kg), ash (2.03%) and Fe (35.38 mg/kg) content, while the samples from Derived savannah had the highest starch (61.11%) and crude fibre (2.87%) content. All the parameters analysed were within the FAO/WHO standards for cassava products except for the Fe content which exceeded the threshold limit of 22 mg/kg, suggesting that iron-based processing machines release Fe that contaminate cassava during processing. Therefore, these machines should be made of stainless steel, and processors should adhere to the standard operating procedures that were established by the food regulatory agencies to reduce iron contamination of cassava products.
Akinoso, R. and Olatunde, S.J., 2014. Effect of mash quantity and roasting duration on some physical and pasting properties of gari. International Food Research Journal 21: 77-82.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 2000. Official methods of analysis, 17th edition. AOAC, Washington, DC, USA.
Awoyale, W., Abass, A.B., Ndavi, M., Maziya-Dixon, B. and Sulyok, M., 2017. Assessment of the potential industrial applications of commercial dried cassava products in Nigeria. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 11: 598-609.
Awoyale, W., Asiedu, R., Kawalawu, W.K.C., Maziya-Dixon, B., Abass, A., Edet, M. and Adetunji, M.O., 2018. Assessment of the heavy metals and microbial contamination of gari from Liberia. Food Science and Nutrition 6: 62-66.
Baah, F.D., Maziya-Dixon, B., Asiedu, R., Oduro, I. and Ellis, W.O., 2009. Nutritional and biochemical composition of D. alata (Dioscorea spp.) tubers. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 7: 373-378.
B?a?ewicz, A., Klatka, M., Astel, A., Partyka, M. and Kocjan, R., 2013. Differences in trace metal concentrations (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, and Ni) in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children. Biological Trace Element Research 155: 190-200.
Bolade, M.K., 2016. An investigation into the level of metallic pollutants in roadside-sundried food products from selected areas of Ondo and Osun states, Nigeria. Cogent Food and Agriculture 2: 1179161.
Cassava Cyanide Diseases Network (CCDN), 2011. Working together to eliminate cyanide poisoning, konzo, tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) and neurolathyrism. Cassava Cyanide Diseases and Neurolathyrism Network News, issue 18.
Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC), 2013. Codex standard 176-1989. Standard for edible cassava flour. Adopted 1989. Amendment 2013. FAO, Rome Italy. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/ybwa3e9c
Dermience, M., Mathieu, F., Li, X.W., Vandevijvere, S., Claus, W., De Maertelaer, V., Dufourny, G., Bin, L., Yangzom, D. and Lognay, G., 2017. Minerals and trace elements intakes and food consumption patterns of young children living in rural areas of Tibet autonomous region, P.R. China: a cross-sectional survey. Healthcare 5: 12.
Dibofori-Orji, A.N. and Edori, O.S., 2015. Analysis of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Zn) in processed cassava flour (garri) sold along the road side of a busy highway. Archives of Applied Science Research 7: 15-19.
Dubios, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers, P.A. and Smith, F., 1956. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical 28: 350-356.
Dziedzoave, N.T., Abass, A.B., Amoa-Awua, W.K.A. and Sablah, M., 2006. Quality management manual for the production of high quality cassava flour. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 68.
Essers, A.J.A., Bosweld, M., Van der Grift, R.M. and Voragen, A.G.J., 1993. Studies on the quantification of specific cyanogens in cassava products and introduction of a new chromogen. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 63: 287-296.
Etudaiye, A.H., Nwabueze, T.U. and Sanni, L.O., 2012. Nutritional quality and preference of fufu processed from selected Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) resistant cultivars. Advances in Applied Science Research 3: 2687-2692.
Falade, K.O. and Akingbala, J.O., 2010. Utilization of cassava for food. Food Reviews International 27: 51-83.
FAO/WHO, 2006. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. Codex Committee on fresh fruits and vegetables, and proposed draft codex standard for bitter cassava, 13th session. September 25-29, 2006. Mexico City, Mexico, pp. 44.
Food Science, 2008. Crude fiber. Available at: https://tinyurl.com/y7bun3hg
Harrison, R.M., Laxen, D.P.H. and Wilson, S.J., 1981. Chemical associations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in street dust and roadside soils. Environmental Science and Technology 15: 1378-1383.
Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board, 2001. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA, 800 pp.
Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods (JECFA), 2009. Discussion paper on cyanogenic glycosides. Electronic Working Group members, 3rdsession. March 23-27,2009. FAO/WHO, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Jones, J.R., Benton, J. and Vernon, C.W., 1990. Sampling, handling and analyzing plant tissue samples. In: Wesbermann, R.L. (ed.) Soil testing and plant analysis, 3rd edition. Soil Science Society of America Incorporated, Madison, WI, USA, pp. 389-428.
Liaud, N., Rosso, M., Fabre, N., Crapart, S., Herpoël-Gimbert, I., Sigoillot, J., Raouche, S. and Levasseur, A., 2015. L-lactic acid production by Aspergillus brasiliensis overexpressing the heterologous ldha gene from Rhizopus oryzae. Microbial Cell Factories 14: 66.
Maziya-Dixon, B., Dixon, A.G.O. and Adebowale, A.A., 2007. Targeting different end uses of cassava: genotypic variations for cyanogenic potentials and pasting properties. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 42: 969-976.
McClements, D.J., 2005. Analysis of food products. Available at: http://people.umass.edu/~mcclemen/581Ash&Minerals.html
Nielsen, S.S., 2010. Food analysis. Springer, New York, NY, USA, pp. 215.
Oduro, I., Ellis, W.O. and Dziedzoave, N.T., 2000. Quality of gari from selected processing zones in Ghana. Food Control 2: 297-303.
Olivares, M., Pizarro, P., De Pablo, S., Araya, M. and Uauy, R., 2004. Iron, zinc, and copper: contents in common Chilean foods and daily intakes in Santiago, Chile. Nutrition 20: 205-212.
Oluwole, O.B., Olatunji, O.O. and Odunfa, S.F., 2004. A process technology for conversion of dried cassava chips into gari. Nigeria Food Journal 22: 65-73.
Onwuka, G.I. and Ogbogu, N.J., 2007. Effect of fermentation on the quality and physicochemical properties of cassava based fufu products made from two cassava varieties NR8212 and Nwangbisi. Journal of Food Technology 5: 261-264.
Otutu, O.L., Ikuomola, D.S. and Udom, Q., 2013. Comparative evaluation of quality of gari samples from six processing centers in Oriade LGA of Osun state, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science 4: 571-580.
Oyewole, O.B. and Asagbra, Y., 2003. Improving traditional cassava processing for nutritional enhancement. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences 20: 23-28.
Petry, N., Olofin, I., Hurrell, R.F., Boy, E., Wirth, J.P., Moursi, M., Angel, D.M. and Rohner, F., 2016. Review: the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency in low, medium, and high human development index countries: a systematic analysis of national surveys. Nutrients 8: 693.
Raji, A.O. and Ojediran, J.O., 2011. Thin layer drying characteristics of castor (Ricinus communis) seed. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 35: 647-655.
Ray, C.R. and Sivakumar, P.S., 2009. Traditional and novel fermented foods and beverages from tropical root and tuber crops: review. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 44: 1073-1087.
Sanni, L.O., Adebowale, A.A., Awoyale, W. and Fetuga, G.O., 2008. Quality of gari (roasted cassava mash) in Lagos, Nigeria. Nigerian Food Journal 26: 125-134.
Sanni, L.O., Maxiya-Dixon, B., Akanya, J., Okoro, C.I., Alaya, Y., Egwuonwu, C.V., Okechukwu, R. and Dixon, A., 2005. Standards for cassava products and guidelines for export. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 23.
Taiwo, K.A., 2006. Utilization potentials of cassava in Nigeria: the domestic and industrial products. Food Reviews International 22: 29-42.
US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), 2000. Supplementary guidance for conducting health risk assessment of chemical mixtures. Risk assessment forum, US EPA, Washington, DC, USA.
Udoro, E.O., Gbadamosi, O.S. and Taiwo, K.A., 2008. Studies on the production and utilization of dried cassava chips as human food. In: Robertson, G.L. and Lupien, J.R. (eds.) Using food science and technology to improve nutrition and promote national development. International Union of Food Science & Technology, Guelph, ON, Canada.
Wada, O., 2004. What are trace elements? Their deficiency and excess states. Japan Medical Association Journal 47: 351-358.
World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organisation (WHO/FAO), 2007. Joint WHO/FAO food standard programme Codex Alimentarius commission. 39th session on food hygiene. October 30-November 4, 2007. New Delhi, India.
Zheng, N., Wang, Q.C. and Zheng, D.M., 2007. Health risk of Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu to the inhabitants around Huludao Zinc plant in China via consumption of vegetables. Science of the Total Environment 383: 81-89.