Identifying objective quality attributes of functional foods

Main Article Content

N.J. Astrini
T. Rakhmawati
S. Sumaedi
I.G.M.Y. Bakti


health claim, Safety, shelf-life, organoleptic, literature review


This study aims to identify objective quality attributes of functional foods based on literature reviews and proposing the future research agenda. There are not many articles that examined the objective quality of functional foods. This article aims to fill that gap: discussing objective quality attribute of functional foods based on the syntheses of previous studies. Previous research on objective quality of functional foods mostly came from the field of food science, and therefore applicable only to certain foods. Studies from the field of consumer behaviour/management mostly focused on perceived quality. This study used journals from three databases and utilised the term ‘functional food’ as the main keyword. Articles gathered were filtered based on their types and contents. There are two categories of objective quality found in literature. Firstly, objective quality related to the process, and secondly, objective quality related to the product itself. Both types are required to make accurate and marketable health claims of functional foods. Future research should try to empirically validate those objective quality attributes.

Abstract 303 | PDF Downloads 75 HTML Downloads 11 XML Downloads 0


Agrahar-Murugkar, D., Dwivedi, S., Dixit-Bajpaj, P. and Kumar, M.,
2018. Effect of natural fortification with calcium and protein rich ingredients on texture, nutritional quality and sensory acceptance of cookies. Nutrition & Food Science 48(5): 807–818. https://doi. org/10.1108/NFS-02-2018-0041
Aiello, A., Accardi, G., Candore, G., Carruba, G., Davinelli, S., Passa-rino, G., Scapagnini, G., Vasto, S. and Caruso, C., 2016. Nutrigeron-tology: a key for achieving successful ageing and longevity. Immunity & Ageing 13: 17.
Alasalvar, C., Garthwaite, T. and Oksuz, A., 2002. Practical evalua-tion of fish quality. In: Alasalvar, C. and Taylor, T. (eds.) Seafoods – Quality, technology and nutraceutical applications. Spring-er-Verlag, New York, NY, USA, pp. 17–31.
Almeida, F., de Paula, N. and Pessali, H., 2013. Institutional entre-preneurship in building the Brazilian market of functional yo-gurts. British Food Journal 116(1): 2–15. BFJ-02-2012-0028
Amaral, A.L., Ferreira, E.S., Neves, V.A., and Demonte, A., 2014. Legumin from chickpea: hypolipidemic effect in the liver of hypercholesterolimic rats. Nutrition & Food Science 44(5): 378–388.
Amaral, A.L., Ferreira, E.S., Silva, M.A., Neves, V.A., and Demonte,  A., 2017. The vicilin protein (Vigna radiata L.) of mung bean as a functional food: evidence of ‘in vitro’ hypocho-lesterolemic activity. Nutrition & Food Science 47(6): 907–916.
Anninou, I. and Foxall, G.R., 2017. Consumer decision-making for functional foods: insights from a qualitative study. Journal of Consumer Marketing 34(7): 552–565. JCM-05-2016-1821
Applegate, E., 2000. Introduction: nutritional and functional roles of eggs in the diet. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 19(5): 495s–498s. 71
Arens, U., 2018. Foods, nutrients and food ingredients with autho-rised EU health claims. In: Miller, K. (ed.) Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, Vol. 3. André Gerhard Wolff, Duxford, pp. 229–236.
Armstrong, G., Farley, H., Gray, J., and Durkin, M., 2005. Market-ing health-enhancing foods: implications from the dairy sector. Marketing Intelligence & Planning 23(7): 705–719. https://doi. org/10.1108/02634500510630221
Asian Development Bank, 2000. Manila Forum 2000: strategies to fortify essential foods in Asia and the Pacific. In: International Life Sciences Institute, and Micronutrient Initiative in Novem-ber 2000, ADB Nutrition and Development Series No. 2. Manila, pp. 10–116.
Badrie, N., Reid-Foster, S., Benny-Ollivierra, C.,and Roberts, H., 2007. Exercise enthusiasts’ perceptions and beliefs of functional foods in Trinidad, West Indies. Nutrition and Food Science 37(5): 345–357.
Bakar, M.F.A., Mohamed, M., Rahmat, A., Burr, S.A., and Fry, J.R., 2010. Cytotoxicity and polyphenol divresity in selected parts of Mangifera pajang and Artocarpus odoratissimus fruits. Nutrition & Food Science 40(1): 29–38. https://doi. org/10.1108/00346651011015890
Ballali, S. and Lanciai, F., 2012. Functional food and diabetes: a natu-ral way in diabetes prevention. International Journal of Food Sci-ences and Nutrition 63(S1): 51–61. 7486.2011.637487
Basu, A., Nguyen, A., Betts, N.M., and Lyons, T.J., 2014. Strawberry as a functional food: an evidence-based review. Food Science and Nutrition 54(6): 790–806. 608174
Bazhan, M., Keshavarz-Mohammadi, N., Hosseini, H., and Kalantari, N., 2017. Consumers’ awareness and perceptions re-garding functional dairy products in Iran: a qualitative research. British Food Journal 119(2): 253–266. BFJ-06-2016-0270
Bekers, M., Grube, M., Upite, D., Kaminska, E., Linde, R., Scher-baka, R., and Danilevich, A., 2007. Carbohydrates in Jerusalem artichoke powder suspension. Nutrition and Food Science 37(1): 42–49.
Bekers, M., Upite, D., Kaminska, E., Linde, R., Scherbaka, R., Danilev-ich, A., and Grube, M., 2008. Fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke by Zymomonas and Saccharomyces. Nutrition and Food Science 38(2): 128–135.
Bhaskaran, S. and Hardley, F., 2002. Buyer beliefs, atti-tudes and behaviour: foods with therepeutic claims. Jour-nal of Consumer Marketing 19(7): 591–606. https://doi. org/10.1108/07363760210451410
Bhat, Z.F., Kumar, S. and Bhat, H.F., 2015. Bioactive peptides from egg: a review. Nutrition & Food Science 45(2): 190–212. https://
Bigliardi, B. and Galati, F., 2013. Innovation trends in food industry: the case of functional foods. Trends in Food Science & Technol-ogy 31: 118–129.
Bimbo, F., Bonanno, A., van Trijp, H., and Viscecchia, R., 2018. Body image dissatisfaction and health-enhancing food choices: a pilot study from a sample of Italian yogurt consumers. Brit-ish Food Journal 120(12): 2778–2792. BFJ-03-2018-0157
Biron, M., Farndale, E. and Paauwe, J., 2011. Performance man-agement effectiveness: lessons from world-leading firms. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 22(6): 1294–1311.
Bishi, S.K., Kumar, L., Mahatma, M.K., Khatediya, N., Chauhan, S.M., and Misra, J.B., 2015. Quality traits of Indian peanut cultivars and their utility as nutritional and functional food. Food Chemistry 167: 107–114.
Bogue, J., Collins, O. and Troy, A.J., 2017. Developing New Func-tional Food and Nutraceutical Products. In: Bagchi, D. and Nair, S. (eds.) Market analysis and concept development of functional foods. Academic Press, Salt Lake City, UT, USA, pp. 29–45.
Bouderbala, S. and Bouchenak, M., 2016. Olive or salmon oils af-fect differently the storage and transport of fatty acids by VLDL in hypercholesterolemic rats fed different proteins. Nutri-tion & Food Science 46(2): 190–203. NFS-08-2015-0096
Brečić, R., Gorton, M. and Barjolle, D., 2014. Understanding vari-ations in the consumption of functional foods – Evidence from Croatia. British Food Journal 116(4): 662–675. https://doi. org/10.1108/BFJ-05-2012-0133
Bruce, G., Schiffrin, E., Raniero, R., Mollet, B., Pfeifer, A., and Neeser, J.R., 1999. The development of functional foods: lessons from the gut. Trends in Biotechnology 17(12): 492–499. https://
Busanello, M., De Moraes Filho, M.L., Guergoletto, K.B., and Garcia, S., 2019. Optimization of the growth of Lactobacillus in skim milk added with green banana flour and determination functional properties. Nutrition and Food Science 49(2): 249–261. https://
Çam, M., Necattin, C.İ. and Fatma, E., 2014. Pomegranate peel phenolics: microencapsulation, storage stability and potential ingredient for functional food development. LWT-Food Sci-ence and Technology 55(1): 117–123. lwt.2013.09.011
Cardello, A.V., 1995. Food quality: relativity, context and consumer expectations. Food Quality and Preference 6(3): 163–170. https://
Celiktas, O.Y., Isleten, M., Vardar-Sukan, F., and Cetin, E.O., 2010. In vitro release kinetics of pine bark extract enriched orange juice and the shelf stability. British Food Journal 112(10): 1063–1076.
Childs, N.M., 1997. Foods that help prevent disease: consumer atti-tudes and public policy implications. Journal of Consumer Mar-keting 14(6): 433–447.
Christidis, N., Tsoulfa, G., Varagunam, M., and Babatzimopoulou, M., 2011. A cross-sectional study of consumer awareness of func-tional foods in Thessaloniki, Greece. Nutrition & Food Science 41(3): 165–174.
Crofton, E.C., Markey, A. and Scannell, A.G.M., 2013. Consumers’ expectations and needs towards healthy cereal-based snacks. British Food Journal 115(8): 1130–1148. BFJ-08-2011-0213
Čukelj, N., Putnik, P., Novotni, D., Ajredini, S., Voucko, B., and Curic, D., 2016. Market potential of lignans and omega-3 functional cookies. British Food Journal 118(10): 2420–2433.
Davčik, N.S., 2013. An empirical investigation of brand equity: drivers and their consequences. British Food Journal 115(9): 1342–1360.
Devaki, C.S., Wadikar, D. and Patki, P., 2015. Vegetable gourds – Guards of human health: a critical appraisal. Nutrition & Food Science 45(1): 125–144. NFS-12-2013-0146
Diplock, A.T., Aggett, P.J., Ashwell, M., Bornet, F., Fern, E.B., and Roberfroid, M.B., 1999. Scientific concepts of functional foods in Europe: consensus document. British Journal of Nutrition 81(1): 1–27.
Dixon, J.M., Hinde, S.J. and Banwell, C.L., 2006. Obesity, conve-nience and ‘phood’. British Food Journal 108(8): 634–645. https://
Dixon, B.D. and Parekh, J.V., 1980. Use of the cone penetrometer for testing the firmness of butter. Journal of Texture Studies 10(4): 421–434.
Doyon, M. and Labrecque, J.A., 2008. Functional foods: a conceptual definition. British Food Journal 110(11): 1133–1149. https://doi. org/10.1108/00070700810918036
Ferrari, G., Maresca, P. and Ciccarone, R., 2010. The application of high hydrostatic pressure for the stabilization of functional foods: pomegranate juice. Journal of Food Engineering 100(2): 245–253.
Foo, L.L., Vijaya, K., Sloan, R.A., and Ling, A., 2013. Obesity preven-tion and management: Singapore’s experience. Obesity Reviews 14(2): 106–113.
Huss, H.H., 1995. Food and Agricultural Organization, 2017. Assess-ment of fish quality. In: Quality and quality changes in fresh fish. FAO.
Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2007. Food safety programs: a guide to standard 3.2.1 food safety programs. Food Standards, Canberra, Australia. Available at: au/industry/safetystandards/documents/Guide321FoodSafe-tyPrograms-WEB.pdf.
Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2016. Nutrition content claims and health claims. Food Standards, Canberra, Australia. San Jose, CA, Available at:
Gaudette, N.J. and Pickering, G.J., 2013. Modifying bitterness in functional food systems. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 53(5): 464–481. 0.542511
Giacalone, D., Fosgaard, T.R., Steen, I., and Münchow, M., 2016. ‘Quality does not sell itself’: divergence between ‘objective’ product quality. British Food Journal 118(10): 2462–2474. https://doi. org/10.1108/BFJ-03-2016-0127
Gineikiene, J., Kiudyte, J. and Degutis, M., 2017. Functional, organic or conventional? Food choices of health conscious and skeptical consumers. Baltic Journal of Management 12(2): 139–152.
Glinsmann, W.H., 1997. Perspective on functional food development and commercialization. Journal of Nutraceuticals, Functional & Medical Foods 1(2): 89–93. J133v01n02_06
Global Industry Analysts: Functional Food and Drinks, 2012. San Jose, CA. Available at: Foods_And_Drinks_Market_Report.asp.
Goetzke, B.I. and Spiller, A., 2014. Health-improving lifestyles of or-ganic and functional food consumers. British Food Journal 116(3): 510–526.
Gok, I. and Ulu, E.K., 2018. Functional foods in Turkey: marketing, consumer awareness and regulatory aspects. Nutrition and Food Science 49(4): 668–686.
Goldberg, I., 1994. Functional foods: designer foods, pharma foods, and nutraceuticals. Chapman and Hall, London.
Gonzalez-Aguilar, G.A., Ruiz-Cruz, S., Cruz-Valenzuela, R., Rodri-guez-Felix, A., and Wang, C.Y., 2004. Physiological and quality changes of fresh-cut pineapple treated with antibrowning agents. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie37(3): 369–376.
Gotoh, T. and Joo, S-.T., 2016. Characteristics and health benefit of highly marbled Wagyu and Hanwoo beef. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources 36(6): 709–718. https://doi. org/10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.6.709
Grajek, W., Olejnik, A. and Sip, A., 2005. Probiotics, prebiotics, and antioxidants as functional foods. Acta Biochemica Polonica 52(3): 665–671.
Gray, J., Armstrong, G. and Farley, H., 2003. Opportunities and con-straints in the functional food market. Nutrition & Food Science 33(5): 213–218.
Haard, N., Odunfa, S.A., Lee, C-H., Quinterro-Ramirez, R., Lor-ence-Quiñones, A., and Wacher-Radarte, C., 1999. Nutritional qualities of cereals. In: Fermented cereals: a global perspective. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Hamlin, R. and McNeill, L., 2016. Does the Australasian ‘Health Star Rating’ front of pack nutritional label system work? Nutrients 8(6): 327–341.
Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, n.d.. Bananas. Available at: bananas/.
Hasler, C., Moag-Stahlberg, A., Webb, D., and Hudnall, M., 2001. How to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and quality of functional foods and their ingredients. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 101(7): 733–736.
Hasnah Hassan, S., 2011. Consumption of functional food model for Malay Muslims in Malaysia. Journal of Islamic Marketing 2(2): 104–124.
Hassan-Zadeh, A., Sahari, M.A. and Barzegar, M., 2008. Optimization of the omega-3 extraction as a functional food from flaxseed. In-ternational Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 59(6): 526–534.
Heasman, M. and Mellentin, J., 2001. The functional food revolution: healthy people, healthy profits. London: Earthscan, pp 1–75. ISBN 978-1-85383-687-9.
Hunt, J.R., 1994. Nutritional products for specific health benefits – foods, pharmaceuticals, or something in-between? Journal of the American Dietetic Association 94(2): 151–153. https://doi. org/10.1016/0002-8223(94)90238-0
Ismail, M., Hamad, M. and Elraghy, E.M., 2018. Quality of Rayeb milk fortified with tamrn and honey. British Food Journal 120(2): 499–514.
Ivanović, L., Milašević, I., Topalović, A. Ðurović, D., Mugoša, B., Knežević, M.,and Vrvić, M., 2018. Nutritional and phytochem-ical content of Swiss chard from Montenegro, under different fertilization and irrigation treatments. British Food Journal 121(2): 411–425.
Jin, P., Yao, D., Xu, F. Wang, H., and Zheng, Y., 2015. Effect of light on quality and bioactive compounds in postharvest broccoli flo-rets. Food Chemistry 172: 705–709. foodchem.2014.09.134
Kaur, J., Kaur, A. and Singh, J., 2017. Nutritional evaluation and uti-lization of composite whole flours for making functional cook-ies rich in β-glucan and isoflavones. British Food Journal 119(4): 909–920.
Khan, R.S., Grigor, J.V., Win, A.G., and Boland, M., 2014. Differenti-ating aspects of product innovation processes in the food indus-try: an exploratory study on New Zealand. British Food Journal 116(8): 1346–1368.
Khedkar, S., Broring, S. and Ciliberti, S., 2017. Exploring the nutri-tion and health claims regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006: what is the impact on innovation in the EU food sector? International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 68(1): 10–17. 080/09637486.2016.1212818
Khedkar, S., Ciliberti, S. and Broring, S., 2016. The EU health claims regulation: implications for innovation in the EU food sector. Brit-ish Food Journal 118(11): 2647–2665. BFJ-01-2016-0021
Kia, E.M., Ghasempour, Z., Ghanbari, S., Pirmohammadi, R., and Ehsani, A., 2018. Development of probiotic yogurt by incorpora-tion of milk protein concentrate (MPC) and microencapsulated Lactobacillus paracasei in gellan caseinate. British Food Journal 120(7): 1516–1528.
Kljusuric, J.G., Cacic, J., Misir, A., and Čačić, D., 2015. Geographical region as a factor influencing consumers’ perception of functional food-case of Croatia. British Food Journal 117(3): 1017–1031.
Kotilainen, L., Rajalahti, R., Ragasa, C., and Eija, P., 2006. Health en-hancing foods: opportunities for strengthening the sector in de-veloping countries. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Kraus, A., 2015. Factors influencing the decisions to buy and con-sume functional food. British Food Journal 117(6): 1622–1636.
Krystallis, A., Maglaras, G. and Mamalis, S., 2008. Motivations and cognitive structures of consumers in their purchasing of func-tional foods. Food Quality and Preference 19(6): 525–538. https://
Kumar, S., Mendiratta, S.K., Agrawal, R.K., Sharma, H., and Kumar, R.R., 2017. Quality evaluation of mutton nuggets incor-porated with optimized level of flaxseed flour. Nutrition and Food Science 47(1): 67–77.
La Barbera,F., Amato, A. and Sannino, G., 2016. Understanding consumers’ intention and behaviour towards functionalised food: the role of knowledge and food technology neophobia. British Food Journal 118(4): 885–895. BFJ-10-2015-0354
Labrecque, J. and Charlebois, S., 2011. Functional foods: an empiri-cal study on perceived health benefits in relation to pre-purchase intentions. Nutrition and Food Science 41(5): 308–318. https://
Lalel, H.J., Mahayasa, N.W., Hidayah, Z, and Kartiwan, KW., 2017. Effort to explore the potential use of palmyrah fruit for func-tional food. British Food Journal 119(10): 2253–2266. https://doi. org/10.1108/BFJ-10-2016-0507
Lalor, F. and Wall, P.G., 2011. Health claims regulations. British  Food Journal 113(2): 298–313. 00070701111105358
Lalor, F., Kennedy, J. and Wall, P.G., 2011. Impact of nutrition knowledge on behaviour towards health claims on food-stuffs. British Food Journal 113(6): 753–765. https://doi. org/10.1108/00070701111140098
Lara, N.S., Sousa, M.M.M., Gandra, F.P.P., de Angelis-Pereira, M.C., de Deus Souza Carneiro, J., and Pereira, R.G.F.A., 2018. Develop-ment of a functional food bar containing coffee. British Food Jour-nal. 121(2): 451–453.
Lawless, H.T., 1995. Dimensions of sensory quality: a critique. Food Quality and Preference 6(3): 191–199. https://doi. org/10.1016/0950-3293(94)00023-O
Lawrence, M. and Germov, J., 2004. Future food: the politics of functional foods and health claims. In: Germov, J. and Wil-liams, L. (eds.) A sociology of food and nutrition. The social appetite. Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 119–147.
Lekshmi, R.G.K., Rahima, M., Chatterjee, N.S., Tejpal, C.S., Anas, K.K., Vishnu, K.V., Sarika, K., Asha, K.K., Anandan, R., and Su-seela, M., 2019. Chitosan – whey protein as efficient delivery system for squalene: characterization and functional food appli-cation. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 135: 855–863.
Lensen, K., Bast, A. and de Boer, A., 2018. Clarifying the health claim assessment procedure of EFSA will benefit functional food innovation. Journal of Functional Foods 47: 386–396. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jff.2018.05.047
Lu, J., 2015. The effect of perceived carrier-ingredient fit on purchase intention of functional food moderated by nutrition knowledge and health claim. British Food Journal 117(7): 1872–1885. https://
MacInnis, D. and Folkes, V., 2009. The disciplinary status of con-sumer bahavior: a sociology of science perspective on key con-troversies. Journal of Consumer Research 36(6): 899–914. https://
Malav, O.P., Sharma, B.D., Kumar, R.R., Talukder, S., Ahmed, S.R., and Irshad, A., 2015. Antioxidant potential and quality characteristics of functional mutton patties incorporated with cabbage powder. Nutrition & Food Science 45(4): 542–563. https://doi. org/10.1108/NFS-03-2015-0019
Mannar, M.G.V. and Hurrell, R. (eds.), 2018. Food fortification in a globalized world. 1st edition. Academic Press, Salt Lake City, UT, Cambridge, MA, USA.
Maringaneli, C. and Jones, J.P., 2010. Plant-sterols, marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids and other functional ingredients: a new fron-tier for treating hyperlipidemia. Nutrition & Metabolism 7(1): 76.
Markovina, J., Čačić, J., Kljusurić, G.J., and Kovacic, D., 2011. Young consumers’ perception of functional foods in Croatia. British Food Journal 113(1): 7–16.
Martinez, S.V. and Siani, A., 2017. Health claims made on food in the EU: the edge between scientific knowledge and regulatory require-ments. Trends in Food Science & Technology 69(B): 315–323.
Mestry, A.P., Mujumdar, A.S. and Thorat, B.N., 2011. Optimization of spray drying of an innovative functional food: fermented mixed juice of carrot and watermelon. Drying Technology: An International Journal 29(10): 1121–1131. 937.2011.566968
Mhurchu, C.N. and Gorton, D., 2007. Nutrition labels and claims in New Zealand and Australia: a review of use and understand-ing. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 31(2): 105–112.
Nestle, M., 2002. Food politics. University of California Press, Berke-ley, CA, USA.
Nunes, M.A., Costa, A., Berreira, J., Vinha, A.F., Alves, R.C., Rocha, A., and Oliveira, B.P.P., 2016. How functional foods endure throughout the shelf storage? Effects of packing materials and formulation on the quality parameters and bioactivity of smooth-ies. LWT-Food Science and Technology 65: 70–78. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.07.061
Olmedilla-Alonso, B., Granado-Lorencio, F., Herrero-Barbudo, C., Blanco-Navarro, I., 2006. Nutritional approach for designing meat-based functional food products with nuts. Food Science and Nutrition 46(7): 537–542.
Ovesen, L., 1999. Functional foods: some relevant considerations? British Food Journal 101(10): 809–817. https://doi. org/10.1108/00070709910293715
Pasha, I., Hussain, S., Khan, M.I., and Akram, N., 2015. Utilization of processed Vigna mungo L. flour in cookies. Nutrition & Food Sci-ence 45(6): 883–894.
Peighambari, K., Sattari, S., Kordestani, A. and Oghazi, P., 2016. Consumer behavior research: a synthesis of the recent literature. Sage Open 6(2): 1–9.
Petracci, M., Mudalal, S., Soglia, F., and Cavani, C., 2015. Meat quality in fast-growing broiler chickens. World’s Poultry Science Journal 71(2): 363–374.
Pravst, I., Kusar, A., Zmitek, K., Miklavec, K., Lavriša, Z., Lähteenmäki, L., Kulikovskaja, V., Malcolm, R., Hodkins, C., and Raats, M., 2018. Recommendations for successful substantiation of new health claims in the European Union. Trends in Food Science & Technology 71: 259–263. tifs.2017.10.015
Rezai, G., Teng, P.K., Shamsudin, M.N., Mohamed, Z., and Stanton, J.L., 2017. Effect of perceptual differences on consumer purchase intention of natural functional food. Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economics 7(2): 153–173.
Ribeiro, A.R., Altintzoglou, T., Mendes, J., Nunes, M.L., Dinis, M.T., and Dias, J., 2019. Farmed fish as a functional food: per-ception of fish fortification and  the influence of origin – in-sights from Portugal. Aquaculture 501:  22–31. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.11.002
Rojas-Rivas, E., Espinoza-Ortega, A., Thomé-Ortiz, H., and Moctezuma-Pérez, S., 2019.Consumers’ perception of ama-ranth in Mexico. British Food Journal. 1190–1202. https://doi. org/10.1108/bfj-05-2018-0334
Sadler, M., 1993. Functional foods: foods of the future. Nutri-tion & Food Science 93(4): 11–13. EUM0000000000993
Saeed, M., Anjum, F.M., Khan, M.R., Khan, M.I., and Nadeem, M., 2013. Isolation, characterization and utilization of starter cultures for the development of wheyghurt drink. British Food Journal 115(8): 1169–1186.
Saenz-Navajas, M., Ballester, J., Pecher, C., Peyron, D., and Valentin,  D., 2013. Sensory drivers of intrinsic quality of red wines: effect of culture and level of expertise. Food Research International 54(2): 1506–1518. foodres.2013.09.048
Sahin, N., Akdemir, F., Orhan, C., Kucuk, O., Hayirli, A., and Sahin, K., 2008. Lycopene-enriched quail egg as functional food for hu-mans. Food Research International 41(3): 295–300. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.foodres.2007.12.006
Sahni, P., Aggarwal, P., Sharma, S., and Singh, B., 2019. Nuances of microalgal technology in food and nutraceuticals: a review. Nu-trition & Food Science 49(5): 866–885. NFS-01-2019-0008
Sanzana, S., Grasa, M.L. and Vidal-Brotóns, D., 2011. Functional foods enriched in Aloe vera. Effects of vacuum impregna-tion and temperature on the respiration rate and the respi-ratory quotient of some vegetables. Procedia Food Science 1: 1528–1533.
Sapers, G.M. and Douglas, J.F.W., 1998. Measurement of enzymatic browning at cut surfaces and in juice of raw apple and pear fruits. Journal of Food Science 63: 1285–1261.
Sarkar, S., 2007. Functional foods as self-care and complementary medicine. Nutrition and Food Science 37(3): 160–167. https://doi. org/10.1108/00346650710749053
Sarkar, S., 2013. Probiotics as functional foods: documented health benefits. Nutrition and Food Science 43(2): 107–115. https://doi. org/10.1108/00346651311313445
Sarkar, S., 2018. Potentiality of probiotic yoghurt as a functional food  – a review. Nutrition and Food Science 49(2): 182–202.
Schnettler, B., Miranda, H., Lobos, G., Sepulveda, J., Orellana, L., Mora, M., and Grunert, K., 2015. Willingness to purchase func-tional foods according to their benefits: consumer profiles in Southern Chile. British Food Journal 117(5): 1453–1473. https://
Schreiner, M. and Huykens-Keil, S., 2006. Phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables: health promotion and post-harvest elicitors. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 25(3): 267–278. https://doi. org/10.1080/07352680600671661
Shahidi, F., 2009. Nutraceuticals and functional foods: whole versus processed foods. Trends in Food Science & Technology 20(9): 376–387.
Shamal, S. and Mohan, B.C., 2017. Consumer behaviour in fortified food choice decisions in India. Nutrition and Food Science 47(2): 229–239.
Sharma, R. and Ghoshal, G., 2018. Nutrition & Food Science article information. Nutrition & Food Science 48(5): 764–779. Avail-able at: NFS-12-2014-0097.
Singh, T.P., Singh, P. and Kumar, P., 2015. Drumstick (Moringa oleif-era) as a food additive in livestock products. Nutrition & Food Sci-ence 45(3): 423–432.
Sloan, A.E., 2000. The top ten functional food trends. Food Technol-ogy 54: 33–62.
Smith, S., 2016. Marbling and its nutritional impact on risk fac-tors for cardiovascular disease. Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources 36(4): 435–444. kosfa.2016.36.4.435
Spence, J.T., 2006. Challenges related to the composition of func-tional foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19: S4–S6.
Stanton, C., Gardiner, G., Meehan, H., Collins, K., Fitzgerald, G., Lynch, P.B., and Ross, R.P., 2001. Market potential for probiot-ics. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73(2): 476–483.
Surai, P.F. and Sparks, N.H., 2001. Designer eggs: from improve-ment of egg composition to functional food. Trends in Food Science & Technology 12(1): 7–16. S0924-2244(01)00048-6
Tahergorabi, R., Matak, K.E. and Jaczynski, J., 2015. Fish protein isolate: development of functional foods with nutraceutical in-gredients. Journal of Functional Foods 18: 746–756. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jff.2014.05.006
Tapsell, L., 2008. Evidence for health claims: a perspective from the Australia–New Zealand region. The Journal of Nutrition 138(6): 1206s–1209s.
The Ministry of Agriculture Nature and Food Quality of the Nether-lands, 2005. European food safety control systems: new perspec-tives on a harmonized legal basis. Available at: http://www.fao. org/3/y5871e/y5871e0l.htm.
Uauy, R., Hertrampf, E. and Reddy, M., 2002. Iron fortification of foods: overcoming technical and practical barriers. The Journal of Nutrition 132(4): 849s–852s.
Urala, N. and Liisa, L., 2003. Reasons behind consumers’ functional food choices. Nutrition & Food Science 33(4): 148–158. https://
Verkerk, R.,Schreiner, M., Krumbein, A., Ciska, E., Holst, B., Row-land, I., de Schrijver, R., Hansen, M., Gerhauser, C., Mithen, R., and Dekker, M., 2009. Glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables – the influence of the food supply chain on intake, bioavailability and human health. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 53(Suppl. (S2)): S219–S265.
Verkerk, R., Schreiner, M., Krumbein, A., Ciska, E., Holst, B., Row-land, I., de Schrijver, R., Hansen, M., Gerhauser, C., Mithen, R.,and Dekker, M., 2019. How effective is food industry self-substantiation of food-health relationships underpinning health claims on food labels in Australia? Public Health Nutrition 22(9): 1686–1695.
Yousefi, M., Khorsidian, N. and Hosseini, H., 2018. An overview of the functionality of inulin in meat and poultry products.
Nutrition & Food Science 48(5): 819–835. NFS-11-2017-0253
Zhao, Y., Park, S., Leonard, SW., and Traber, M.G., 2005. Vitamin E and mineral fortification in fresh-cut apples (Fuji) using vacuum impregnation. Nutrition & Food Science 35(6): 393–402. https://