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anti nutrients, saponin, Vigna mungo, Lactobacillus lactis
The present study investigated the possibility of reducing non-nutritional factors in the widely cultivated legume Vigna mungo. This legume is widely cultivated and serves as an economical and important source of nutrition, lack of consumer friendly, adaptable methods in reducing the non-nutritional factors in the pulse, however, has been an impediment in the consumption (discomfort and other problems) of this legume. The application of lactic acid bacteria for reducing non-nutrients could be an interesting, effective and adaptable approach for legumes. In view of this, a simple fermentative method was designed in this study, for reducing the non-nutrients: trypsin inhibitor, cyanide, saponin, raffinose series oligosaccharides, tannin and phytate prevalent in V. mungo. Lactic acid fermentation carried out using an indigenous strain of Lactococcus lactis in V. mungo and cereal (wheat) composite flour led to the reduction of phytate and saponin by 69 and 81% after 4 h and complete removal after 8 h. Hydrogen cyanide, tannin and amylase inhibitor were also degraded completely; trypsin inhibitor decreased by 41% within 4 h and bound fructose (raffinose series oligosaccharides) in the V. mungo wheat sourdough was reduced by 65% after 4 h. No significant (P>0.05) change in the levels of total sugars, total proteins and lipid and polyphenols was observed. Moreover, the cell viability and production of gamma aminobutryic acid by L. lactis in the composite sourdough remained unaltered over the period of fermentation. The results of this study suggest an exciting possibility of exploiting the indigenous probiotic L. lactis strain for designing nutritional foods with V. mungo.