Effect of whole grain flours on the overall quality characteristics of mulberry pestil

Main Article Content

M. Murat Karaoğlu
Y. Bedir
H. Boz


mulberry leather (pestil), starch, wheat bran, whole grain flour


This research aimed to determine the effects of the structural ingredients (starch, wheat flour, wheat bran and whole grain flours from oat, barley, rye and wheat) on the physical, chemical and sensorial properties of the mulberry pestil. Effects of structural ingredients and their levels were statistically significant on colour values, total dry matter, ash, pH and titratable acidity, total soluble solids, total phenolic content and sensorial evaluation results (P < 0.01) of pestil samples. The characteristics of mulberry pestils ranged from 7.26 to 8.53 brix for total soluble solids, 90.23–92.67% total dry matter, 2.09–3.23% ash (in dry weight), 5.67–5.81 pH, 0.40–0.73% titratable acidity. The highest total phenolic contents were determined in samples containing whole oat flour and whole barley flour, while the lowest values were determined in samples containing starch. The L* values of the pestil samples increased with increasing barley flour and starch content whereas L* values decreased in the pestil samples containing wheat flour, whole rye flour, whole wheat flour, whole oat flour and wheat bran. The highest a* and b* values were measured in samples containing 9% level of starch, and the lowest a* and b* colour values were determined in samples containing 9% level of wheat bran. According to the sensorial evaluation results, the pestil samples produced with oat flour were generally more appreciated by panelists.

Abstract 671 | PDF Downloads 474 HTML Downloads 221 XML Downloads 6


Aksu, M.İ., Özdemir, F. and Nas, S., 1997. The quality characteristics of marmalades produced at different sugar/pulp ratios by using rosehip (Rosa spp.) pulp obtained by application of preheating during process. Journal of Engineering Science 3: 243–248.
Alpaslan, M. and Hayta, M., 2006. The effects of flaxseed, soy and corn flours on the textural and sensory properties of a bakery product. Journal of Food Quality 29: 617–627. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2006.00099.x
Axtell, Z.Q. and Baık, B., 2006. Phenolic compounds of barley grain and their implication in food product discoloration. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 54: 9978–9984. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf060974w
Boz, H., Karaoğlu, M.M. and Kaban, G., 2016. The effects of cooking time and sugar on total phenols, hydroxymethylfurfural and acrylamide content of mulberry leather (pestil). Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 8(4): 493–500. https://doi.org/10.3920/QAS2014.0558
Cagindi, O. and Otles, S., 2005. Comparison of some properties on the different types of pestil: a traditional product in Turkey. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 40: 897–901. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.00962.x
Cemeroğlu, B., 1992. Basic analysis methods in fruit and vegetable processing industry [in Turkish]. Biltav Press, Ankara, Turkey.
Cemeroğlu, B., 2007. Food analysis. Food Technology Press, No: 34, Ankara.
Ciesarová, Z., Kukurova, K., Mikusova, L., Basil, E., Polakovicova, P., Duchonova, L., Vıcek, M. and Sturdık, E., 2014. Nutritionally enhanced wheat-oat bread with reduced acrylamide level. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 6(3): 327–334. https://doi.org/10.3920/QAS2013.0371
Elgün, A. and Ertugay, Z., 2012. Grain processing technology. Atatürk University Publications No: 718, Erzurum.
Gujral, S.H., Sharma, B. and Khatri, M., 2018. Influence of replacing wheat bran with barley bran on dough rheology, digestibility and retrogradation behavior of chapatti. Food Chemistry 240: 1154–1160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.08.042
Gülcin, I., Oktay, M., Küfrevioglu, I. and Aslan, A., 2002. Determination of antioxidant activity of lichen Cetrariais landica (L) Ach. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 79(3): 325–329. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00396-8
Maskan, A., Kaya, S. and Maskan, M., 2002a. Hot air and sun drying of grape leather (pestil). Journal of Food Engineering 54: 81–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(01)00188-1
Maskan, A., Kaya, S. and Maskan, M., 2002b. Effect of concentration drying process on color change of grape juice and leather (pestil). Journal of Food Engineering 54: 75–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(01)00187-X
Phimpharian, C., Jangchud, A., Jangchud, K., Therdthai, N., Prinyawiwatkul, W. and Kyoon No, H., 2011. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory optimisation of pineapple leather snack as affected by glucose syrup and pectin concentrations. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 1: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02579.x
Uylaşer, V. and Başoğlu, F., 2011. Basic Food Analysis [in Turkish]. Dora Press, Bursa, Turkey.
Sayaslan, S. and Şahin, N., 2018. Effects of fermented-chickpea liquor (chickpea yeast) on whole-grain wheat flour bread properties. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 10(2): 183–192. https://doi.org/10.3920/QAS2017.1225
Şengül, M., Yıldız, H., Güngör, N. and Okçu, Z., 2010. Total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, some physical and chemical properties of pestil. Asian Journal of Chemistry 2(1): 448–454.
Suna, S. Tamer, C.E, İncedayı, B, Sinir, G.Ö. and Çopur, Ö.U., 2014. Impact of drying methods of physicochemical and sensory properties of apricot pestil. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 13(1): 47–55.
Szczesniak, A.S., 2002. Texture is a sensory property. Food Quality and Preference 13: 215–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-3293(01)00039-8
Tokbas, H., 2009. Jam and marmalade processing of mulberry fruit (Morus nigra L.) and determine of the antioxidant properties of products. Master thesis. Gaziosmanpaşa University, Institute of Science and Technology, Tokat.
Tontul, İ. and Topuz, A., 2017a. Effects of different drying methods on the physicochemical properties of pomegranate leather (pestil). LWT—Food Science and Technology 80: 294–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2017.02.035
Tontul, I. and Topuz, A., 2017b. Production of pomegranate fruit leather (pestil) using different hydrocolloid mixtures: an optimization study by mixture design. Journal of Food Process Engineering 41: 12657. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.12657
Torley, P.J., De Boer, J., Bhandari, B.R., Kasapis, S., Shrinivas, P. and Jiang, B., 2008. Application of the synthetic polymer approach to the glass transition of fruit leathers. Journal of Food Engineering 86: 243–250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.10.008
Trichopoulou, A., Soukara, S. and Vasilopoulou, E., 2007. Traditional foods: a science and society perspective. Trends in Food Science & Technology 18: 420–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2007.03.007
Tiwari, B.K., O'donnell, C.P., Muthukumarappan, K. and Cullen, P.J., 2009. Anthocyanin and colour degradation in ozone treated blackberry juice. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 10(1): 70–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2008.08.002
Villanueva, N.D.M. and Da Silva, M.A.A.P., 2009. Comparative performance of the nine-point hedonic, hybrid and self-adjusting scales in the generation of internal preference maps. Food Quality and Preference 20: 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2008.06.003
Wang, C.C., Ma, S., Li., L, Zheng, X.L. and Wang, X.X., 2018. Effect of modified dietary fibre from wheat bran on the quality of noodle. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 10(1): 61–68. https://doi.org/10.3920/QAS2017.1076
Ye, E.Q., Chacko, S.A., Chou, E.L., Kugizaki, M. and Liu, S., 2012. Greater whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain. The Journal of Nutrition 142: 1304–1313. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.111.155325
Yıldız, O., 2013. Physicochemical and sensory properties of mulberry products: Gümüşhane pestil and köme. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 37: 762–771. https://doi.org/10.3906/tar-1301-41
Yuksel, F., Karaman, S. and Kayacier, A., 2015. Barley flour addition decreases the oil uptake of wheat chips during frying. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 7(5): 621–628. https://doi.org/10.3920/QAS2014.0472