1Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, School of Medicine, Nutrition Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran;
2Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Monteiro Lobato, 80. Caixa Postal: 6121.CEP: 13083-862, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
The residue level, dissipation behavior, and dietary intake risk of chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite in parsley (Petroselinum crispum) were investigated under field conditions. Extraction and determination of pesticide residues were carried out by a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and a gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) system, respectively. Dissipation of chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite in parsley followed the first-order kinetics with a half-life (t1/2) of 3.33, 3.30, 2.94, 3.52, 4.10, and 3.38 days, respectively. Based on the dissipation pattern and the maximum residue limits (MRL), preharvest intervals (PHI) of 25, 13, 18, 24, 1, and 16 days are suggested for chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite in parsley, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of pesticides ranged from 7.37E-05 (dimethoate) to 8.00E-04 (metalaxyl) mg/kg. The chronic risk assessment showed that the hazard quotient (HQ) was <1 and Hazard Index (HI, indicating the cumulative exposure to pesticide residues) was <100%, demonstrating that an intake of pesticide residues from parsley was safe for humans.
Key words: half-life, parsley, field conditions, post-harvest interval, GC/MS/MS, method validation
*Corresponding Author: Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, [email protected]
Received: 17-05-2020| Accepted: 09-07-2020| Published: 21-07-2020
© 2020 Codon Publications
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0). License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/)
Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) with bright green color and a mild, bitter flavor is one of the world’s most popular flowering herbs (Charles, 2012; Farzaei et al., 2013). It is mainly cultured as an annual culinary herb in Europe and Western Asia (Charles, 2012). This vegetable is used as a fresh product or a dried spice. It is an excellent source of antioxidants, antibacterial, and antifungal components (Farzaei et al., 2013). The effects of the ingested antioxidant compounds by the consumption of this vegetable on the reduction of cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer have been documented (Brizzolari et al., 2019; Frączek et al., 2019; Fredotović and Puizina, 2019; Shin et al., 2018). Leaves of parsley had various pharmacological attributes, including anticancer, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, immunosuppressant, anti-diabetic/coagulant so on, and are used to treat gastrointestinal, disorders, kidney stones, inflammation, amenorrhea, and halitosis (Agyare et al., 2017; Charles, 2012; Farzaei et al., 2013).
The use of pesticides is one of the ways to enhance production efficiency (Badawy et al., 2019; Heshmati et al., 2019; Heshmati and Nazemi, 2018). Pesticides are mixtures of chemical compounds for killing, destroying, or mitigating the threat of pests (Pallarés et al., 2020; Serefoglu and Serefoglu, 2016). Although, pesticides prevent or minimize crop loss due to pests, their residues in agricultural products are a major concern with regard to food safety (Aydin and Ulvi, 2019; Hamidi et al., 2019; Nazemi et al., 2016; Shoeibi et al., 2013). In order to maintain human health, pesticide residues in agricultural products and foodstuff should be lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by the legal authority of European Commission (European Commission, 2005; Razzaghi et al., 2018).
As different pests, such as insects and fungi, can grow on parsley (Hershman et al., 1986; Webb, 2006), it is crucial to apply pesticides in order to prevent its yield loss. The occurrence of pesticide residues in parsley has been previously documented (El-Shahawi, 1997; Esturk et al., 2014; Horskáet al., 2020; Szpyrka et al., 2015). Quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample preparation (QuEChERS) method was one of the most important methods for the extraction of pesticide residues from different food products, including parsley samples (Razzaghi et al., 2018). The advantages of the QuEChERS method are the low cost and fast sample preparation, reduced requirements for reagent, and the simultaneous extraction of several pesticide residues (Kolberg et al., 2011; Lehotay et al., 2010). According to previous studies, gas chromatography (GC), gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS), or liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), are the most commonly used methods or techniques to look for pesticide residues in parsley (Esturk et al., 2014; Horskáet al., 2020). Chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite are commonly used in parsley cultivation in Iran and some other countries (Horskáet al., 2020). While no information (except on metalaxyl) is available regarding persistence and the waiting periods or pre-harvest interval (PHI) of these pesticide residues in parsley. PHI is number of days between the actual application of a pesticide and when a crop can be harvested such that the pesticide residue level has reached below MRL (Horská et al., 2020).Therefore, dissipation studies will help to determine the waiting periods for these pesticide residues in parsley.
In this regard, this study was aimed to determine the dissipation behavior of insecticides (chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, and permethrin), fungicides (iprodione and metalaxyl) and acaricides (propargite) in parsley under filed conditions, and to assess their risk for the benefit of parsley consumers.
The reference substances of chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite were bought from Dr. Ehrenstorfer Co. (Augsburg, Germany). For spraying of parsley, trade forms of mentioned pesticides were purchased from Mahan Inc. (Tehran, Iran). Acetonitrile, sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate all in the analytical grade were purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany). Supelco (Bellefonte, USA) donated the primary secondary amine (PSA), graphitized carbon black (GCB), perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA), and triphenylmethane (TPM). Other chemicals were of analytical grade and were purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany). TMP was utilized as an internal standard. The mass spectrometer performance was checked daily using PFTBA according to the manufacturer’s tuning procedures.
The field experiment was conducted in September of 2018 in Hamadan, Iran. Parsley was cultivated in several separate plots. Each plot had an area of 16 m2 and was sprayed with one type of pesticide using a portable sprayer (Ronix, Model: RH-6005, Tehran, Iran) with standard flat-fan nozzles and a water volume of 12 L. Chlorpyrifos-methyl (Dursban 40.8% water emulsifiable concentrates or EC), dimethoate (Roxion 40% EC), permethrin (Ambush 10% EC), iprodione (52.5% wettable powder or WP), metalaxyl (Ridomil 5 granule or GR), and propargite (Omite 57% water-based emulsion or EW) were separately applied to three test plots at the recommended dosages of 400, 816, 100, 525, 100, and 570 g of active ingredient per hectare (g.a.i./ha), respectively. During the culturing of parsley and the field trial, no rain was reported, and the mean daily temperature, air humidity, and wind speed were 22°C, 32%, and 10 km/h, respectively. Parsley samples were collected at 2 h, and after 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 20 days after spraying. During sampling, approximately 1.5 kg of parsley was collected from each plot and transferred to the laboratory. After the addition of dry ice to parsley samples, they were ground with a mill (Romer mill, Stylemaster Drive, USA). Fifty grams of milled samples were weighted and utilized for pesticide residue analysis.
Figure 1. The diagram of QuEChERS method used for the extraction of pesticide.
A GC/MS/MS (model 7000C, Agilent, Santa Clara, CA, USA) equipped with an autosampler (model Agilent 7693, Agilent, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and an HP-5 capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm I.D., 0.25 μm film thicknesses) was used to determine pesticide residue concentration. The oven temperature was programmed as follows: the initial temperature was 75°C, then it was increased to 120°C with a 25°C/min ramp, afterward it was increased to 300°C with a 5°C/min ramp, and this temperature was maintained for 11 min. The helium (purity of 99.99%) was utilized as carrier gas (He) with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Other conditions of tandem mass spectrometer include the injector temperature, 250°C; the quadrupole temperature, 150°C; and the ion source temperature, 230°C; and ionization energy, 70 eV. The mass spectrometer was operated in the electron ionization (EI) mode and involved multi-reaction monitoring (MRM), while a GC/MS/MS injector was used in the splitless mode. The optimized GC/MS/MS parameters are shown in Table 1.
Table 1. The retention time, diagnostic ions, and the selected quantification ion for the pesticide residue analysis.
|Name of pesticide||Retention time||Diagnostic ions||Quantification ion||Collision energy (eV)||Product ion (m/z)||Parent ion (m/z)|
|Chlorpyrifos-methyl||30.04||314 (545), 257.8, 197 (999), 199 (956)||314||10||168.9||196.8|
|Dimethoate||16.901||86.9 (999), 93 (618), 124.8 (502)||124.8||5||198.9||203|
|Permethrin||33.930||183.0 (999), 164.9 (172), 162.9 (204)||183.0||10||149||391|
|Iprodion||29.860||186.8 (570), 313.9 (965), 243.7 (150)||186.8||10||245||313|
|Metalaxyl||20.710||206.1 (999), 159.9 (650), 132.0 (649), 249.0 (499)||206.1||10||117||132|
|Propargite||29.113||350.2 (20), 201 (150), 134.9 (999), 173 (252)||350.2||15||107.1||134.8|
For method validation, linearity, recovery, the limit of detection (LOD), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined. External calibration curves, along with matrix-matched methods, were performed for pesticide residues in the concentration of 0.005–0.400 mg/kg. To assess the accuracy and precision of the analysis method, the recovery experiments were performed. For recovery, blank parsley samples were fortified with 0.005, 0.010, and 0.020 mg/kg of a standard solution of each pesticide. Then, the pesticide residue of spiked samples was extracted and measured following the above procedures. At each fortification level, five replicates were carried out. This experiment was repeated three consecutive days to obtain test precision. Recovery was calculated from the dividing of found pesticide content in spiked samples to real content. LOD and LOQ were considered as signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3:1 and 10:1, respectively (Maznah et al., 2018).
For long-term risk assessment, the estimated daily intake (EDI), HQ (Hazard Quotient), and Hazard Index (HI) were determined according to the following equations (Cámara et al., 2020; Gui et al., 2019; Milinčićet al., 2020; Pallarés et al., 2020; Tandon, 2016; Yang et al., 2020).
supervised trials median residue (STMR) (mg/kg), FI (food intake, kg/day), bw (body weight, kg), and the accepted daily intake (ADI) (mg/kg bw/day) indicated the supervised trials’ median residue (Dong et al., 2017), daily per capita consumption of parsley (58 g) in Iran (Heshmati et al., 2020a; ISIRI, 2010; Mehri et al., 2019), the bodyweight of adults (70 kg), and the ADI, respectively. The STMR is the median of pesticide residues’ level in the edible portion of a food substance applied in supervised trials according to maximum good agricultural practice (GAP) conditions (FAO, 2002). HI was the cumulative exposure to pesticide residues, which is estimated by summing HQ of each pesticide residue. If HI exceeds 100%, the risk is not acceptable (Cámara et al., 2020; Milinčićet al., 2020; Yang et al., 2020).
To determine the degradation kinetics of each pesticide, its residue level versus time was plotted, and the maximum R2 (the squared correlation coefficients) for different curves was determined to obtain the best curve for degradation kinetics. The degradation of whole pesticides followed first-order rate equation, that is, Ct = C0e−kt, where C0 and Ct, indicated the level of the pesticide residues after 2 h of spraying on day t, while K and t are the degradation rate constant and time, respectively (Galietta et al., 2010). The t1/2 (necessary time for the reduction of pesticide residues’ concentration to 50% of its initial level) and PHI were determined with the following equations (Chen et al., 2016):
K and t are the degradation rate constant and time, respectively.
MRL of chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite in parsley was considered as 0.02, 0.02, 0.05, 0.02, 3, and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively (Commission Regulation, 2017a, 2017b, 2017c, 2018a, 2018b, 2019).
The data of method validation is presented in Table 2. The recovery range of chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite was 99.02–102.71, 92.73–98.53, 98.53–114.98, 90.69–98.37, 93.15–98.90, and 94.36–104.06%, respectively.
Table 2. Validation method date, including recovery, relative standard deviations (RSDs), calibration equation, determination coefficient (R2), limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ).
|Recovery (%) and RSD (%)||Spiking level (mg/kg)||0.005||Mean (%)||101.32||92.73||106.16||98.37||98.84||102.46|
|Calibration curve equation||y = 27270x – 276434||y = 6012/8x – 22339||y = 23819x – 512182||y = 24735x – 150292||y = 29303x + 24821||y = 21426x – 469851|
|95% Confidence intervals of the calibration curve equation||Slope||26183 to 28358||5547 to 6479||21059 to 26579||23523 to 25946||26659 to 31947||19208 to 23644|
|Y-intercept||–481319 to -71549||–110092 to 65413||–1032187 to 7823||–378530 to 77946||–473387 to 523029||–887780 to –51923|
|X-intercept||2.698 to 17.19||–11.51 to 17.41||–0.3570 to 40.41||–3.262 to 14.82||–19.08 to 15.24||2.609 to 38.91|
The LOD for chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite was 1.78, 0.12, 3.82, 1.11, 1.35, and 2.44 µg/kg, respectively. The LOQ values obtained for pesticides were lower than their MRL, and coefficients of determination (R2) of the calibration curve were >0.999. Therefore, the established method was suitable and satisfactory for analysis.
The dissipation curves of chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite under field conditions are presented in Figure 2. Two hours after pesticide application, the initial deposits of chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite were 4.748, 0.259, 2.757, 2.098, 3.348 and 0.474 mg/kg, respectively. The data regarding the dissipation behavior of the analyzed pesticide in parsley, such as kinetic equation, half-lives, and R2,are given in Table 3. Half-life values for chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite were 3.33, 3.30, 2.94, 3.52, 4.10, and 3.38 days, respectively. The highest PHI (25 days) was related to chlorpyrifos-methyl, while metalaxyl had the lowest PHI (1 day). After 28 days in field conditions, residue levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite decreased to 98.59, 98.46, 99.20, 98.33, 95.31, and 98.31%, respectively.
Figure 2. Dissipation of A: chlorpyrifos methyl, B: dimethoate, C: permethrin, D: iprodione, E: metalaxyl, and F: propargite in parsley under field conditions.
Table 3. The initial deposits (mg/kg), regression equation, R2, half-life (t1/2), and preharvest intervals (PHI) of pesticides in parsley.
|Initial deposits (mg/kg)||4.748||0.259||2.757||2.098||3.348||0.474|
|Regression equation||y = 4.0061e–0.208x||y = 0.3347e–0.21||y = 3.3444e–0.2367x||y = 2.4335e–0.197x||y = 3.455e–0.1694x||y = 0.5031e–0.205x|
The dissipation pattern of dimethoate in other crops was partly different from our findings. In papaya and guava, t1/2 of dimethoate was reported as 3.07–5.04 and 2.8–3.3 days; both these findings were similar to our results, while t1/2 of this pesticide in chili fruits (1.94 days) and mango (2 days) was lower than the findings (3.30 days) of the present study (Ahuja et al., 2005; Bhattacherjee and Dikshit, 2016; Khan et al., 2009; Varghese et al., 2011). The half-life of dimethoate in our study (3.30 days) was lower than that reported for chilly (4.7 days) and okra (5.21 days) (Waghulde et al., 2011). The PHI of dimethoate in parsley (132 days) was higher than that in papaya (3–5 days), guava (3 days), and mango (6–7 days), while it was lower than that in chili (13.63 days) and pomegranate (31.5 days at the standard dose of application and 43.0 days at a double dose of application) (Ahuja et al., 2005; Bhattacherjee and Dikshit, 2016; Khan et al., 2009; Utture et al., 2012; Varghese et al., 2011).
The half-life (3.33 days) and PHI (25 days) for chlorpyrifos obtained in this study were longer than those reported for green mustard (t1/2: 1.1–1.5 days and PHI: 4 days) (Chai et al., 2009). In other studies dependent on chlorpyrifos formulates, its t1/2 in orange, peach, tomato, table grape, and wine grape was 8–13, 9.1–14, 6.9–9.1, 7.7–13.9, and 6.6–13.3 days, respectively (Angioni et al., 2011).
The dissipation of metalaxyl has previously been investigated (Chen et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2012; Malhat, 2017; Ramezani and Shahriari, 2015; Rattan and Sharma, 2012). The t1/2 of this pesticide on watermelon, tomato, and cucumber was reported as 3.2–3.5, 1.18, and 3–35 days, respectively. While these findings were lower than that of the current study (4.10 days) (Chen et al., 2010; Malhat, 2017; Rattan and Sharma, 2012); a higher t1/2 (4.9 days) was reported for grape samples (Liu et al., 2012). The calculated waiting period of 1 day for the safe consumption of parsley sprayed with metalaxyl in the current study was similar to corresponding values for cucumber (Ramezani and Shahriari, 2015; Rattan and Sharma, 2012). However, Malhat (2017) reported longer waiting periods (7 days) for tomato (Malhat, 2017). The PHI of pesticides had correlations with their MRL (Heshmati et al., 2020b). A shorter PHI of metalaxyl in parsley was related to greater MRL (3 mg/kg) of this pesticide in comparison with another pesticide.
Propargite is an effective acaricide, which is utilized for a large number of crops (Kumar et al., 2005). The half-life of propargite in green tea leaves, apple, and Brinjal Fruits was, respectively, 1.79, 2.61, 6.2–10m and 3.07–3.54 days (Kang et al., 2009; Kumar et al., 2005; Lou et al., 2008), while t1/2 of this pesticide in our study was 3.38 days. In the current study, we found that a waiting period of 16 days was needed for the safe consumption of parsley to prevent any health hazards due to propargite, while shorter waiting periods were advised for other crops, such as 1 day for the brinjal fruit (Kang et al., 2009).
The half-life of iprodione in our study (3.52 days) was shorter than that in tomato (6.8 days) and similar to that in sweet cherry (3.47 days) (Lazićet al., 2016; Omirou et al., 2009). The occurrence of permethrin was reported for some vegetables, although little published information was found regarding its t1/2 and PHI (George, 1985).
The reasons for discrepancies of t1/2 and PHI values in our study when compared with previous studies were related to the differences in effective factors on pesticide dissipation. The dissipation pattern of pesticides depended on pesticide formulations and physical–chemical properties (vapor pressure and solubility), climate conditions (temperature, humidity, sunlight), plant characteristics (genus and species), location of application of the pesticide, and the number and dosage of pesticide applications (Chai et al., 2009; Heshmati et al., 2020b; Jacobsen et al., 2015; Kumar et al., 2005). Therefore, the variations in these factors in various studies resulted in different t1/2 and PHI values being obtained and reported for each pesticide.
The findings of risk assessment are summarized in Table 4. STMR for chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite were 0.876, 0.089, 0.851, 0.750, 0.965, and 0.166 mg/kg, respectively. In a previous study, the estimated STMR of chlorpyrifos in rice and cabbage, respectively, was 0.01 and 0.227 mg/kg (Chen et al., 2012), which was lower than our findings. As shown, the pesticide EDI ranged from 7.37E-05 (dimethoate) to 8.00E-04 (Metalaxyl) mg/kg bw/day, and HQ of all them were <100%. HI of six pesticides was lower than 100%, and this finding is similar to previous studies (Cámara et al., 2020; Milinčićet al., 2020; Yang et al., 2020). Overall, these results showed that for the recommended dose of pesticide, the long-term exposure of consumers to dimethoate, chlorpyrifos-methyl, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite residues through parsley consumption is relatively negligible. However, it’s necessary to calculate EDI of mentioned pesticide through other crop consumption on which these pesticides may be used.
Table 4. Dietary intake risk assessments of dimethoate, chlorpyrifos methyl, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite through parsley consumption.
|Pesticide||STMR (mg/kg)||EDI (mg/kg bw/day)||ADI (mg/kg bw/day)||HQ (%)|
|HI = 17.52|
HQ: Hazard Quotient; HI, Hazard Index; ADI, accepted daily intake; STMR.
This study is the first report on dissipation behavior and dietary intake risk of chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite in parsley (Petroselinum crispum) under the field conditions. Dissipation of chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite in parsley followed the first-order kinetics with t1/2 of 3.33, 3.30, 2.94, 3.52, 4.10, and 3.38, respectively. Based on the dissipation pattern and MRL, PHI of 25, 13, 18, 24, 1, and 16 days are suggested for chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite in parsley, respectively. The risk assessment showed HQ was <1 for spraying the mentioned pesticide on parsley, and therefore, they were safe for humans. Finally, the results of the current study would be used as a reference for establishing PHI of chlorpyrifos-methyl, dimethoate, permethrin, iprodione, metalaxyl, and propargite in parsley to provide guidance on the safe and proper use of these pesticides. However, the current investigation was devoted to assessing the EDI of pesticides through parsley consumption. It is, however, necessary to calculate EDI of mentioned pesticides through the consumption of other crops.
The authors would like to thank Hamadan University of Medical Science (Project No: 9706203689).
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
Agyare, C., Appiah, T., Boakye, Y.D and Apenteng, J.A., 2017. Chapter 25–Petroselinum crispum: a review. In: V. Kuete (Ed.), Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa. Academic Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 527–547. 10.1016/B978-0-12-809286-6.00025-X
Ahuja, A., Mohapatra, S. and Awasthi, M.., 2005. Persistence and dissipation of dimethoate and dicofol residues in/on papaya. Pest Management In Horticultural Ecosystems 11: 39–43.
Angioni, A., Dedola, F., Garau, A., Sarais, G., Cabras, P. and Caboni, P.., 2011. Chlorpyrifos residues levels in fruits and vegetables after field treatment. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B 46: 544–549. 10.1080/03601234.2011.583880
Aydin, S. and Ulvi, M.., 2019. Residue levels of pesticides in nuts and risk assessment for consumers. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 11: 539–548. 10.3920/QAS2018.1405
Badawy, M.E.I., Ismail, A.M.E. and Ibrahim, A.I.H., 2019. Quantitative analysis of acetamiprid and imidacloprid residues in tomato fruits under greenhouse conditions. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B 54: 898–905. 10.1080/03601234.2019.1641389
Badawy, M.E.I., Mahmoud, M.S. and Khattab, M.M., 2020. Residues and dissipation kinetic of abamectin, chlorfenapyr and pyridaben acaricides in green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under field conditions using QuEChERS method and HPLC. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B 55:1–8. 10.1080/03601234.2020.1726701
Bhattacherjee, A. and Dikshit, A., 2016. Dissipation kinetics and risk assessment of thiamethoxam and dimethoate in mango. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 188: 165. 10.1007/s10661-016-5160-3
Brizzolari, A., Brandolini, A., Glorio-Paulet, P. and Hidalgo, A., 2019. Antioxidant capacity and heat damage of powder products from South American plants with functional properties. Italian Journal of Food Science 31: 731–748. 10.14674/IJFS-1521
Cámara, M., Cermeño, S., Martínez, G. and Oliva, J., 2020. Removal residues of pesticides in apricot, peach and orange processed and dietary exposure assessment. Food Chemistry 325:126936. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126936
Chai, L.K., Mohd-Tahir, N. and Bruun Hansen, H.C., 2009. Dissipation of acephate, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and their metabolites in a humid-tropical vegetable production system. Pest Management Science 65:189–196. 10.1002/ps.1667
Charles, D., 2012. Parsley. In Handbook of Herbs and Spices. Elsevier, Woodhead Publishing, Sawston, Cambridge, pp. 430–451.
Chen, C., Qian, Y., Liu, X., Tao, C., Liang, Y. and Li, Y., 2012. Risk assessment of chlorpyrifos on rice and cabbage in China. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 62: 125–130. 10.1016/j.yrtph.2011.12.011
Chen, L., Jia, C., Zhu, X., He, M., Yu, P. and Zhao, E., 2010. Residual dynamic analysis of metalaxyl-M in watermelon and soil. Agrochemicals 49: 282–283.
Chen, W., Liu, Y. and Jiao, B., 2016. Dissipation behavior of five organophosphorus pesticides in kumquat sample during honeyed kumquat candied fruit processing. Food Control 66: 87–92. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.01.033
Commission Regulation, 2017a. (EU) 2017/623 amending Annexes II and III to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards maximum residue levels for acequinocyl, amitraz, coumaphos, diflufenican, flumequine, metribuzin, permethrin, pyraclostrobin and streptomycin in or on certain products. Official Journal of the European Union L 93/1.
Commission Regulation, 2017b. (EU) 2017/1135 amending Annexes II and III to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards maximum residue levels for dimethoate and omethoate in or on certain products Official Journal of the European Union L 164/28.
Commission Regulation, 2017c. (EU) 2017/1164 amending Annexes II and III to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards maximum residue levels for acrinathrin, metalaxyl and thiabendazole in or on certain products. Official Journal of the European Union L 170/3.
Commission Regulation, 2018a. (EU) 2018/686 amending Annexes II and III to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards maximum residue levels for chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and triclopyr in or on certain products. Official Journal of the European Union L 121/30.
Commission Regulation, 2018b. (EU) 2018/832 amending Annexes II, III and V to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards maximum residue levels for cyantraniliprole, cymoxanil, deltamethrin, difenoconazole, fenamidone, flubendiamide, fluopicolide, folpet, fosetyl, mandestrobin, mepiquat, metazachlor, propamocarb, propargite, pyrimethanil, sulfoxaflor and trifloxystrobin in or on certain products/. Official Journal of the European Union L 140/38.
Commission Regulation, 2019. (EU) 2019/38 amending Annexes II and V to Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards maximum residue levels for iprodione in or on certain products. Official Journal of the European Union: L 9/94.
Dong, B., Shao, X., Lin, H. and Hu, J., 2017. Dissipation, residues and risk assessment of metaldehyde and niclosamide ethanolamine in pakchoi after field application. Food Chemistry 229: 604–609. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.02.117
El-Shahawi, M., 1997. Retention profiles of some commercial pesticides, pyrethroid and acaricide residues and their application to tomato and parsley plants. Journal of Chromatography A 760: 179–192. 10.1016/S0021-9673(96)00872-2
Esturk, O., Yakar, Y. and Ayhan, Z., 2014. Pesticide residue analysis in parsley, lettuce and spinach by LC-MS/MS. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51: 458–466. 10.1007/s13197-011-0531-9
European Commission, 2005. Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 of the european parliament and of the council of 23 february 2005 on maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin and amending council directive 91/414/EEC. Access to the Official Journal 50: 1–50.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), 2002. JMPR Practices in Estimation of Maximum Residue Levels, and Residues Levels for Calculation of Dietary Intake of Pesticide Residues Submission and Evaluation of Pesticide Residues data for the Estimation of Maximum Residue Levels in Food and Feed. FAO. Rome, Italy.
Farzaei, M.H., Abbasabadi, Z., Ardekani, M.R.S., Rahimi, R. and Farzaei, F., 2013. Parsley: a review of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biological activities. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 33: 815–826. 10.1016/S0254-6272(14)60018-2
Frączek, B., Morawska, M., Gacek, M. and Pogoń, K., 2019. Antioxidant activity as well as vitamin C and polyphenol content in the diet for athletes. Italian Journal of Food Science 31: 617–630. 10.14674/IJFS-1510
Fredotović, Ž. and Puizina, J., 2019. Edible allium species: chemical composition, biological activity and health effects. Italian Journal of Food Science 31: 19–39. 10.14674/IJFS-1221
Galietta, G., Egaña, E., Gemelli, F., Maeso, D., Casco, N., Conde, P. and Nuñez, S., 2010. Pesticide dissipation curves in peach, pear and tomato crops in Uruguay*. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B 46: 35–40. 10.1080/03601234.2010.515504
George, D.A., 1985. Permethrin and its two metabolite residues in seven agricultural crops. Journal–Association of Official Analytical Chemists 68: 1160–1163. 10.1093/jaoac/68.6.1160
Gui, T., Jia, G.F., Xu, J., Ge, S.J., Long, X.F., Zhang, Y.P. and Hu, D.Y., 2019. Determination of the residue dynamics and dietary risk of thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin in citrus and soil by LC-MS/MS. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B 54: 326–335. 10.1080/03601234.2019.1571361
Hamidi, M., Nili-Ahmadabadi, A. and Heshmati, A., 2019. Evaluation of different preparation methods of edible mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, strains H737) on reduction of health hazards caused by deltamethrin residue. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences & Food Technology 14: 95–104.
Hershman, D., Varney, E. and Johnston, S., 1986. Etiology of parsley damping-off and influence of temperature on disease development. Plant Disease 70: 927–930. 10.1094/PD-70-927
Heshmati, A., Hamidi, M. and Nili-Ahmadabadi, A., 2019. Effect of storage, washing, and cooking on the stability of five pesticides in edible fungi of Agaricus bisporus: a degradation kinetic study. Food Science & Nutrition 7: 3993–4000. 10.1002/fsn3.1261
Heshmati, A., Mehri, F., Karami-Momtaz, J. and Khaneghah, A.M., 2020a. Concentration and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements, lead and cadmium, in vegetables and cereals consumed in Western Iran. Journal of Food Protection 83: 101–107. 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-19-312
Heshmati, A. and Nazemi, F., 2018. Dichlorvos (DDVP) residue removal from tomato by washing with tap and ozone water, a commercial detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaner. Food Science and Technology 38: 441–446. 10.1590/1678-457x.07617
Heshmati, A., Nili-Ahmadabadi, A., Rahimi, A., Aliasghar, V. and Taheri, M., 2020b. Dissipation behavior and risk assessment of fungicide and insecticide residues in grape under open-field, storage and washing conditions. Journal of Cleaner Production 270:122287. 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122287
Horská, T., Kocourek, F., Stará, J., Holý, K., Mráz, P., Krátký, F., Kocourek, V. and Hajšlová, J., 2020. Evaluation of pesticide residue dynamics in lettuce, onion, leek, carrot and parsley. Foods 9: 680. 10.3390/foods9050680
Hua, J., Fayyaz, A., Song, H., Tufail, M. and Gai, Y., 2019. Development of a method Sin-QuEChERS for the determination of multiple pesticide residues in oilseed samples. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 11: 511–516. 10.3920/QAS2019.1557
ISIRI, 2010. Institute of standards and industrial research of Iran. Food & Feed-Maximum limit of heavy metals. No. 12968. Karaj, Iran.
Jacobsen, R.E., Fantke, P. and Trapp, S., 2015. Analysing half-lives for pesticide dissipation in plants. SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research 26: 325–342. 10.1080/1062936X.2015.1034772
Kang, B., Jyot, G., Sharma, R., Sahoo, S., Battu, R. and Singh, B., 2009. Dissipation kinetics of propargite in brinjal fruits under subtropical conditions of Punjab, India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 82: 248–250. 10.1007/s00128-008-9610-7
Khan, B.A., Farid, A., Asi, M.R., Shah, H. and Badshah, A.K., 2009. Determination of residues of trichlorfon and dimethoate on guava using HPLC. Food Chemistry 114: 286–288. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.08.092
Kolberg, D.I., Prestes, O.D., Adaime, M.B. and Zanella, R., 2011. Development of a fast multiresidue method for the determination of pesticides in dry samples (wheat grains, flour and bran) using QuEChERS based method and GC–MS. Food Chemistry 125: 1436–1442. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.10.041
Kumar, V., Sood, C., Jaggi, S., Ravindranath, S., Bhardwaj, S. and Shanker, A., 2005. Dissipation behavior of propargite––an acaricide residues in soil, apple (Malus pumila) and tea (Camellia sinensis). Chemosphere 58: 837–843. 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.06.032
Lazić, S., Šunjka, D., Panić, S., Bjelica, Z. and Vuković, S., 2016. Dissipation rate and residues of acetamiprid and iprodione in sweet cherry fruits. Agrofor 1:143–150. 10.7251/AGRENG1601143L
Lehotay, S.J., Son, K.A., Kwon, H., Koesukwiwat, U., Fu, W., Mastovska, K., Hoh, E. and Leepipatpiboon, N., 2010. Comparison of QuEChERS sample preparation methods for the analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. Journal of Chromatography A 1217: 2548–2560. 10.1016/j.chroma.2010.01.044
Liu, C., Wan, K., Huang, J., Wang, Y. and Wang, F., 2012. Behavior of mixed formulation of metalaxyl and dimethomorph in grape and soil under field conditions. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 84: 112–116. 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.06.030
Lou, Z.-Y., Tang, F.-B., Chen, Z.-M., Luo, F.-J. and Liu, G.-M., 2008. Residue and dissipation dynamics of propargite in citrus and soil [J]. Acta Agriculturae Zhejiangensis 4: 282-286.
Malhat, F.M., 2017. Persistence of metalaxyl residues on tomato fruit using high performance liquid chromatography and QuEChERS methodology. Arabian Journal of Chemistry 10: S765–S768. 10.1016/j.arabjc.2012.12.002
Maznah, Z., Halimah, M. and Ismail, B.S., 2018. Evaluation of the persistence and leaching behaviour of thiram fungicide in soil, water and oil palm leaves. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 100: 677–682. 10.1007/s00128-018-2312-x
Mehri, F., Heshmati, A., Moradi, M. and Khaneghah, A.M., 2019. The concentration and health risk assessment of nitrate in vegetables and fruits samples of Iran. Toxin Reviews 1–8. 10.1080/15569543.2019.1673424
Milinčić, D.D., Vojinović, U.D., Kostić, A.Ž., Pešić, M.B., Trifunović, B.D.Š., Brkić, D.V., Stević, M.Ž., Kojić, M.O. and Stanisavljević, N.S., 2020. In vitro assessment of pesticide residues bioaccessibility in conventionally grown blueberries as affected by complex food matrix. Chemosphere 252:126568. 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126568
Nazemi, F., Khodadadi, I. and Heshmati, A., 2016. Effect of storage type and time and washing methods on dichlorvos residues in tomato. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences 26: 36–44.
Omirou, M., Vryzas, Z., Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, E. and Economou, A., 2009. Dissipation rates of iprodione and thiacloprid during tomato production in greenhouse. Food Chemistry 116: 499–504. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.03.007
Pallarés, N., Tolosa, J., Gavahian, M., Barba, F.J., Mousavi-Khaneghah, A. and Ferrer, E., 2020. The potential of pulsed electric fields to reduce pesticides and toxins. In: Pulsed Electric Fields to Obtain Healthier and Sustainable Food for Tomorrow. Elsevier, pp. 141–152.
Ramezani, M.K. and Shahriari, D., 2015. Dissipation behaviour, processing factors and risk assessment for metalaxyl in greenhouse-grown cucumber. Pest Management Science 71: 579–583. 10.1002/ps.3859
Rattan, G. and Sharma, N., 2012. Dissipation kinetics of metalaxyl in cucumber. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 88: 769–771. 10.1007/s00128-012-0577-z
Razzaghi, N., Ziarati, P., Rastegar, H., Shoeibi, S., Amirahmadi, M., Conti, G.O., Ferrante, M., Fakhri, Y. and Khaneghah, A.M., 2018. The concentration and probabilistic health risk assessment of pesticide residues in commercially available olive oils in Iran. Food and Chemical Toxicology 120: 32–40. 10.1016/j.fct.2018.07.002
Serefoglu, C. and Serefoglu, S., 2016. Consumer fair prices for less pesticide in potato. Italian Journal of Food Science 28: 107–120. 10.14674/1120-1770/ijfs.v464
Shin, D., Chae, K., Choi, H., Lee, S., Gim, S., Kwon, G., Lee, H., Song, Y., Kim, K. and Kong, H., 2018. Bioactive and pharmacokinetic characteristics of pre-matured black raspberry, rubus occidentalis. Italian Journal of Food Science 30: 428–439. 10.14674/IJFS-987
Shoeibi, S., Amirahmadi, M., Rastegar, H., Khosrokhavar, R. and Khaneghah, A.M., 2013. An applicable strategy for improvement recovery in simultaneous analysis of 20 pesticides residue in tea. Journal of Food Science 78: T792–T796. 10.1111/1750-3841.12100
Szpyrka, E., Kurdziel, A., Matyaszek, A., Podbielska, M., Rupar, J. and Słowik-Borowiec, M., 2015. Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the region of south-eastern Poland. Food Control 48: 137–142. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.05.039
Tandon, S., 2016. Dissipation of pendimethalin in soybean crop under field conditions. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 96: 694–698. 10.1007/s00128-016-1764-0
Utture, S.C., Banerjee, K., Kolekar, S.S., Dasgupta, S., Oulkar, D.P., Patil, S.H., Wagh, S.S., Adsule, P.G. and Anuse, M.A., 2012. Food safety evaluation of buprofezin, dimethoate and imidacloprid residues in pomegranate. Food Chemistry 131: 787–795. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.09.044
Varghese, T.S., Mathew, T.B., George, T., Beevi, S.N. and Xavier, G., 2011. Dissipation study of dimethoate, ethion and oxydemeton methyl in chilli. Pesticide Research Journal 23: 68–73.
Waghulde, P., Khatik, M., Patil, V. and Patil, P., 2011. Persistence and dissipation of pesticides in chilly and Okra at North Maharashtra Region. Pesticide Research Journal 23: 23–26.
Webb, S., 2006. Insect Management for Celery and Parsley. Department of Entomology and Nematology Document ENY-463, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Yang, J., Luo, F., Zhou, L., Sun, H., Yu, H., Wang, X., Zhang, X., Yang, M., Lou, Z. and Chen, Z., 2020. Residue reduction and risk evaluation of chlorfenapyr residue in tea planting, tea processing, and tea brewing. Science of the Total Environment 738: 139613. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139613