Aflatoxin B1 in the Iranian pistachio nut and decontamination methods: A systematic review

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Mohsen Mokhtarian
Hamid Tavakolipour
Foroud Bagheri
Carlos Augusto Fernandes Oliveira
Carlos Humberto Corassin
Amin Mousavi Khaneghah


Pistachio nut; Aflatoxin B1; Prevalence; Systematic review; Decontamination


This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the various cultivars of the Persian pistachio nut and the decontamination techniques, with the aid of a systematic review and meta-analysis. In this regard, all published studies up to November 2019 among international and national databases were screened, resulting in 23 articles. According to the findings, the main aflatoxin identified in the pistachio nut was AFB1, with AFB1 concentrations in ~28% of the studies being ? 5 µg/kg, in ~35% of the studies being ? 10 µg/kg, and in ~37% of the studies being ? 10 µg/kg. Generally, in most studies (~72%), AFB1 content in pistachio cultivars was higher than the acceptable level proposed by the Iranian National Standard. Although several physical and chemical techniques for AFB1 reduction have been introduced, most of them are not safe and/or suitable for human consumption.

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