Changes in the biochemical characteristics and volatile fingerprints of atemoya during postharvest ripening at room temperature

Main Article Content

Xiao Gong
Xianshao Wu
Ningli Qi
Jihua Li
Yujia Huo


atemoya, postharvest ripening process, biochemical characteristics, volatile organic compounds


In order to determine the best shelf life of the atemoya, the changes in the biochemical characteristics in five different stages of senescence were investigated. During postharvest ripening at room temperature, the firmness decreased rapidly after harvest and the fruit weight loss and browning degree increased from the earliest green-colored stage onward. The total soluble solid concentrations (TSSC) and titratable acidity (TA) increased continuously throughout maturation, and the peak respiratory and ethylene production rates occurred on the 3d and 5th day of postharvest, respectively. Phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity steadily increased, catalase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities decreased significantly on the 1st day and then gradually increased, and peroxidase activities increased during the initial 3 days, and then decreased at later stages. The volatile fingerprints of flesh samples from the five senescence stages were successfully established using gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) combined with principal component analysis, and 32 typical target compounds and 35 indeterminate compounds were obtained. The results provide a theoretical basis for the development of innovative preservation methods for atemoya.

Abstract 36 | PDF Downloads 4 XML Downloads 0 HTML Downloads 3


Aebi, H., 1984. Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology 105: 121–126.
Ali, S., Khan, A.S., Malik, A.U. and Shahid, M.J., 2016. Effect of controlled atmosphere storage on pericarp browning, bio-active compounds and antioxidant enzymes of litchi fruits. Food Chemistry 206: 18–29. foodchem.2016.03.021
Alique, R. and Zamorano, J.P., 2000. Influence of harvest date within the season and cold storage on cherimoya fruit ripening. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48(9): 4209–4216. https://
Bolivar-Fernandez, N., Saucedo-Veloz, C., Solis-Pereira, S. and Sauri-Duch, E., 2009. Ripening of sugar apple fruits (Annona squamosa L.) developed in Yucatán, México. Agrociencia 43: 133–141.
Brown, B.I., Wong, L.S., George, A.P. and Nissen, R.J., 1988. Comparative studies on the postharvest physiology of fruit from different species of Annona (custard apple). Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 63: 521–528. https://doi. org/10.1080/14620316.1988.11515887
Bruce, R.J. and West, C.A., 1989. Elicitation of lignin biosynthesis and isoperoxidase activity by pectic fragments in suspension cultures of castor bean. Plant Physiology 91(3): 889–897. https://
Chen, J.J., Duan, Y.J., Hu, Y.L., Li, W.M., Sun, D.Q., Hu, H.G. and Xie, J.H., 2019. Transcriptome analysis of atemoya pericarp elucidates the role of polysaccharide metabolism in fruit ripening and cracking after harvest. BMC Plant Biology 19: 219. https://
Chu, W.J., Gao, H.Y., Chen, H.J., Fang, X.J. and Zheng, Y.H., 2018. Effects of cuticular wax on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit. Food Chemistry 239: 68–74. foodchem.2017.06.024
Cruz-Bravo, R.K., Guzmán-Maldonado, S.H., Araiza-Herrera, H.A. and Zegbe, J.A., 2019. Storage alters physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of cactus pear fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 150: 105–111.
Fang, R., Rao, J.Y., Long, X., Huang, W.X., Tang, J., Zhang, J., Zhou, S.Y. and Deng, B., 2015. Introduction performance and cultivation techniques of pineapple custard apple in Chongzuo, Guangxi. South China Fruit (In Chinese) 44(4), 119–121.
Galeazzi, M.A.M., Sgarbieri, V.C. and Constantinides, S.M., 1981. Isolation, purification and physicochemical characterization of polyphenoloxidases (PPO) from a dwarf variety of banana (Musa cavendishii, L). Journal of Food Science 46(1): 150–155.
Gustavsson, J., Cederberg, C., Sonesson, U., Van Otterdijk, R. and Mcybeck, A., 2011. Global food losses and food waste: extent, causes and prevention. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome
Gutierrez, M., Sola, M.M., Pascual, L. and Vargas, A.M., 1994. Postharvest changes of sugar concentration in chilled injured cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.). Journal of Plant Physiology 143(1): 27–32.
Hammerschmidt, R. and Ku?, J., 1982. Lignification as a mechanism for induced systemic resistance in cucumber. Plant Pathology 20: 61–71.
Hiwale, S., 2015. Custard apple (Annona squamosa L.). In: Hiwale, S., (ed.) Sustainable horticulture in semiarid dry lands. Springer, New Delhi, pp. 135–152
Horticulture Innovation, 2019. Australian horticulture statistics handbook 2015–2018 (AH15001). Horticulture Innovation Australia Limited Publishing, New South Wales, Australia
Huan, C., An, X.J., Yu, M.L., Jiang, L., Ma, R.J., Tu, M.M. and Yu, Z.F., 2018. Effect of combined heat and 1-MCP treatment on the quality and antioxidant level of peach fruit during storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology 145: 193–202. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2018.07.013
Koukol, J. and Conn, E.E., 1961. The metabolism of aromatic compounds in higher plants IV. Purification and properties of the phenylalanine deaminase of Hordeum vulgare. Journal of Biological Chemistry 237(5): 1653–1656. content/236/10/2692
Krongyut, W., Srilaong, V., Uthairatanakij, A., Wongs-Aree, C., Esguerra, E.B. and Kanlayanarat, S., 2011. Physiological changes and cell wall degradation in papaya fruits cv. ‘Kaek Dum’ and ‘Red Maradol’ treated with 1-methylcyclopropene. International Food Research Journal 18: 1251–1259. foodchem.2018.05.031
Li, C.R., Shen, W.B., Lu, W.J., Jiang, Y.M., Xie, J.H. and Chen, J.Y., 2009. 1-MCP delayed softening and affected expression of XET and EXP genes in harvested cherimoya fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 52: 254–259. postharvbio.2008.12.009
Lin, Y.F., Lin, Y.X., Lin, H.T., Lin, M.S., Li, H., Yuan, F., Chen, Y.H. and Xiao, J.B., 2018. Effects of paper containing 1-MCP postharvest treatment on the disassembly of cell wall polysaccharides and softening in Younai plum fruit during storage. Food Chemistry 264: 1–8.
Liu, J., Liu, S., Zhang, X., K, J. and Jin, C., 2019. Effect of gallic acid grafted chitosan film packaging on the postharvest quality of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). Postharvest Biology and Technology 147: 39–47. postharvbio.2018.09.004
Magwaza, L.S. and Tesfay, S.Z., 2015. A review of destructive and non-destructive methods for determining Avocado fruit maturity. Food and Bioprocess Technology 8: 1995. https://doi. org/10.1007/s11947-015-1568-y
Morena, J. and De La Plaza, J.L., 1993. The respiratory intensity of cherimoya during refrigerated storage: a special case of climacteric fruit? Acta Horticulturae 138: 179–186. https://doi. org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1983.138.20
Pareek, S., Yahia, E.M., Pareek, O.P. and Kaushik, R.A., 2011. Postharvest physiology and technology of Annona fruits. Food Research International 44: 1741–1751. foodres.2011.02.016
Shen, W.B., Li, C.R., Chen, J.Y., Xie, J.H. and Lu, W.J., 2009. Expansin gene expression in cherimoya fruit is correlated with flesh firmness during fruit ripening and softening. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 84: 333–339. https://doi. org/10.1080/14620316.2009.11512527
Suo, J.T., Li, H., Ban, Q.Y., Han, Y., Meng, K., Jin, M.J., Zhang, Z.K. and Rao, J.B., 2018. Characteristics of chilling injury-induced lignification in kiwifruit with different sensitivities to low temperatures. Postharvest Biology and Technology 135: 8–18.
Tietz, J.M., 1988. Relacion entre pilosidad del fruto de cherimoya (A. cherimola Mill.) y evolucion de madurez. Tesis Ing Agrícola, Quillota (Chile), Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso’
Ubi, G.M., Onabe, M.B., William, U., Jemide, J.O. and Essien, I.S., 2016. Preliminary studies on fruit lignification time interval and phenological traits of selected okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) genotypes grown in Southern Nigeria. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 10: 1–10. IJPSS/2016/23514
Wade, L., 2009. Florida’s best fruiting plants: native and exotic trees, shrubs, and vines. By Charles R. Boing. Selbyana 30: 127. https://
Zainal, B., Ding, P., Ismail, I.S. and Saari, N., 2019. Physico-chemical and microstructural characteristics during postharvest storage of hydrocooled rockmelon (Cucumis melo L. reticulatus cv. Glamour). Postharvest Biology and Technology 152: 89–99.