Inhibition of Clostridium botulinum and its toxins by probiotic bacteria and their metabolites: An update review

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Adel Mirza Alizadeh
Fataneh Hashempour-Baltork
Mahmood Alizadeh-Sani
Mohammad Maleki
Maryam Azizi-Lalabadi
Kianoush Khosravi-Darani


bacteriocins, decontamination, prevention, probiotic bacteria


Clostridium (C.) botulinum is the causative agent of foodborne poisoning such as botulism, which includes high mortality rates in animals and humans. Probiotic bacteria play critically functional roles in food matrices, as well as agricultural, clinical and nutritional fields. In this review, potentials of various probiotic bacteria and their metabolites to prevent C. botulinum toxicity are reviewed. For this purpose, an introduction about C. botulinum and its mechanisms of action is provided. After a short introduction of probiotic bacteria and their beneficial health effects on humans, the bacterial mechanisms of their action are reviewed. Then bacteriocin production by probiotic bacteria is described. After description of C. botulinum and its neurotoxins, effects of probiotic bacteria on C. botulinum are reviewed with a special focus on effects of the bacterial bacteriocins on this pathogen. Furthermore, physicochemical factors, which show great effects on potential of nisin to prevent growth and toxin production of the bacteria, are introduced. This study has shown that probiotic bacteria and their bacteriocins can be effective on growth, toxin formation and toxicity of C. botulinum. In conclusion, probiotic use in food safety studies can be effective in preventing or treating toxicity of C. botulinum.

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