Main Article Content
The thin-layer drying kinetics of lemon verbena leaves were studied by using a solar cabinet dryer at air tempera-ture (at three levels of 30, 40, and 50°C), air velocity (at three levels of 2, 2.5, and 3 m/s), and mesh tray size (3, 6, and 10 mm). A completely randomized factorial design was used to analyze the effect of independent factors on drying time and essential oil yield. Results showed that all experiments have shorter drying time and higher essen-tial oil content than the shade-drying method. Also, the best drying conditions that led to an optimal essential oil yield (1.73 mL/g DM) involved a lower temperature (30°C) and velocity (2 m/s) and a mesh size of 10 mm. A good adaptation between the experimental and the predicted moisture content was observed, whereby the statistical criteria of R2, root mean square error, and k2 were calculated as 0.99, 0.08, and 0.01, respectively.
In the current study, the effect of different drying states such as air velocity and drying temperature was studied on the drying behaviors and essential oil contents of lemon verbena leaves. The obtained results can lead us to a suitable drying condition that can be used in the subsequent designation of systems. Also, a mathematical model for the pre-diction of the leaves’ drying kinetics was constructed and evaluated, which could be approached in the drying systems.
Akbulut, A. and Durmu?, A., 2010. Energy and exergy analysis of thin-layer drying of mulberry in a forced solar dryer. Energy 35(4): 1754–1763.? https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2009.12.028
Akpinar, E.K., 2010. Drying of mint leaves in a solar dryer and under open sun: modelling, performance analysis. Energy Conversion and Management 51(12): 2407–2418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.05.005
Amer, B.M.A., Hossain, M.A. and Gottschalk, K., 2010. Design and performance evaluation of a new hybrid solar dryer for banana. Energy Conversion and Management 51(4): 813–820.? https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2009.11.016
Argyropoulos, D. and Müller, J., 2014. Changes of essential oil content and composition during convective drying of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). Industrial Crops and Products 52: 118–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.10.020
Bagheri, H., Arabhoseini, A. and Kianmehr, M.H., 2015. Energy and exergy analysis of thin-layer drying of tomato in a forced solar dryer. Iranian Journal of Biosystems Engineering 46(1): 39–45.
Bal, L.M., Satya, S. and Naik, S.N., 2010. Solar dryer with thermal energy storage systems for drying agricultural food products: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14(8): 2298–2314.?? https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.04.014
Basti, A., Misaghi, A. and Khaschabi, D., 2007. Growth response and modelling of the effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, pH and temperature on Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. LWT Food Science and Technology 40(6): 973–981. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2006.07.007
Benitez, J., 2016. Principles and modern applications of mass transfer operations. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Dehghani Mashkani, M.R.D., Larijani, K., Mehrafarin, A. and Badi, H.N., 2018. Changes in the essential oil content and composition of Thymus daenensis Celak. under different drying methods. Industrial Crops and Products 112: 389–395.? https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.12.012
Ebadi, M.T., Azizi, M., Sefidkon, F. and Ahmadi, N., 2015. Influence of different drying methods on drying period, essential oil content and composition of Lippia citriodora Kunth. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 2(4): 182–187.? https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmap.2015.06.001
El-Sebaii, A.A. and Shalaby, S.M., 2012. Solar drying of agricultural products: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16(1): 37–43.? https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.134
Eric, O., Loubiere, K., Martin, C., Delaplace, G., & Marc, A. (2015). Critical agitation for microcarrier suspension in orbital shaken bioreactors: Experimental study and dimensional analysis. Chemical Engineering Science, 122, 545-554.?
Esfahani, J.A., Majdi, H. and Barati, E., 2014. Analytical two-dimensional analysis of the transport phenomena occurring during convective drying: apple slices. Journal of Food Engineering 123: 87–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.09.019
Eswara, A.R. and Ramakrishnarao, M., 2013. Solar energy in food processing-a critical appraisal. Journal of Food Science and Technology 50(2): 209–227. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-012-0739-3
Ezugwu, C.N., 2015. Renewable energy resources in Nigeria: sources, problems and prospects. Journal of Clean Energy Technologies 3(1): 68–71.? https://doi.org/10.7763/JOCET.2015.V3.171
Golmakani, M. T., Farahmand, M., Ghassemi, A., Eskandari, M. H., & Niakousari, M. (2017). Enrichment of citral isomers in different microwave?assisted extraction of essential oil from fresh and dried lemon verbena (Aloysia citridora) leaves. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 41(6), e13215.? https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13215
Harrison, L., 2012. RHS Latin for gardeners. Mitchell Beazley, p. 224, London.
Hasan, A.A.M., Bala, B.K. and Rowshon, M.K., 2014. Thin layer drying of hybrid rice seed. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food 7(4): 169–175.? https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eaef.2014.06.002
Ho, Q.T., Carmeliet, J., Datta, A.K., Defraeye, T., Delele, M.A., Herremans, E., Oparad, L., Ramona, H., Tijskensa, E., van der Smane, R., Van Liedekerkea, P., Verboven, P. and Nicolai, B.M., 2013. Multiscale modeling in food engineering. Journal of Food Engineering 114(3): 279–291.? https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.08.019
Infante, R., Rubio, P., Contador, L. and Moreno, V., 2010. Effect of drying process on lemon verbena (Lippia citrodora Kunth) aroma and infusion sensory quality. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 45(1): 75–80.? https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.02105.x
Jangam, S.V., Visavale, G.L. and Mujumdar, A.S., 2011. Use of renewable source of energy for drying of FVF. Drying of Foods, Vegetables and Fruits 3: 103–126.?
Jiang, J., Dang, L., Tan, H., Pan, B. and Wei, H., 2017. Thin layer drying kinetics of pre-gelatinized starch under microwave. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 72: 10–18.? https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2017.01.005
Karparvarfard, S.H. and Rahmanian Koushkaki, H., 2015. Development of a fuel consumption equation: test case for a tractor chisel-ploughing in a clay loam soil. Biosystems Engineering 130: 23–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2014.11.015
Macfoy, C., 2013. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Sierra Leone. iUniverse, Indiana.?
Vladut, V., 2010. Solar energy use in dryers as an alternative energy source in agriculture. Bulletin UASVM Agriculture 67(1): 187–193.
Moradi, M. and Karparvarfard, S.H., 2016. Mathematical modeling of a corn grains drying process in a continuous dryer including inert particles. Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering 14(83): 82–90.
Moradi, M., Niakousari, M. and Etemadi, A., 2016. Dimensionless modeling of thin-layer drying process of Aloe vera gel. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal 12: 362–370. https://doi.org/10.22067/ifstrj.v12i3.55168
Moradi, M., Niakousari, M. and Mousavi Khaneghah, A., 2019. Kinetics and mathematical modeling of thin-layer drying of osmo?treated Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) gel slices. Journal of Food Process Engineering 42(6): e13180.? https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpe.13180
Morton, C.O., Wurster, S., Fliesser, M., Ebel, F., Page, L., Hünniger, K., Kurzai, O., Schmitt, A.L., Michel, D., Springer, J., Einsele, H. and Loeffler, J., 2018. Validation of a simplified in vitro Transwell® model of the alveolar surface to assess host immunity induced by different morpho-types of Aspergillus fumigatus. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 309(8): 1009–1017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2018.09.001
Mujumdar, A.S. and Jangam, S.V., 2011. Energy issues and use of renewable source of energy for drying of foods. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Drying of Food and Biomaterials, Bangkok, Thailand.
Ndukwu, M.C., 2009. Effect of drying temperature and drying air velocity on the drying rate and drying constant of cocoa bean. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Journal XI: 1091.
Perrot, N., Trelea, I.C., Baudrit, C., Trystram, G. and Bourgine, P., 2011. Modelling and analysis of complex food systems: state of the art and new trends. Trends in Food Science & Technology 22(6): 304–314.? https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2011.03.008
Putra, R.N. and Ajiwiguna, T.A., 2017. Influence of air temperature and velocity for drying process. Procedia Engineering 170: 516–519. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.03.082
Sodom and-Moghaddam, S., Sharifi, M., Zareiforoush, H. and Mobli, H., 2020. Mathematical modeling of lemon verbena leaves drying in a continuous flow dryer equipped with a solar pre-heating system. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 12(1): 57–66.? https://doi.org/10.15586/QAS2019.658
Tahmasebi, M., Tavakoli Hashjin, T., Khoshtaghaza, M.H. and Nikbakht, A.M., 2011. Evaluation of thin-layer drying models for simulation of drying kinetics of quercus (Quercus persica and Quercus libani). Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology 13(2): 155–163.?
Rocha, R.P., de Castro Melo, E., Demuner, A.J., Radünz, L.L. and Braun, H., 2012. Effect of drying air velocity on the quality of essential oil from lemongrass. Global Science and Technology 5(1): 23-31.
Santacatalina, J.V., Soriano, J.R., Cárcel, J.A. and Garcia-Perez, J.V., 2016. Influence of air velocity and temperature on ultrasonically assisted low temperature drying of eggplant. Food and Bioproducts Processing 100: 282–291.? https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2016.07.010
Trystram, G., 2012. Modelling of food and food processes. Journal of Food Engineering 110(2): 269–277.? https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2011.05.001
Zomorodian, A. and Moradi, M., 2010. Mathematical modeling of forced convection thin layer solar drying for Cuminum cyminum. Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology 12: 401–408.