The inhibitory effects of polyphenolic compounds on the damage caused by safflower fly (Acanthiophilus helianthi) in Carthamus spp.

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Karami Soraya
Basaki Tayebeh
Amin Mousavi Khaneghah


antibiosis; flavonoid; safflower; safflower fly


Seed coat color is probably a determinant factor in the antibiosis mechanism of developing resistance to safflower fly (Acanthiophilus helianthi). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the phyto-chemical content of safflower (Carthamus spp.) seed coat extract with the seed coat color and the damage caused by safflower fly. To this end, germplasm consisting of the cultivated species (C111, with a white seed coat), the wild species (Glaucus and lanatus with a black seed coat; Azar with a brown seed coat), and a breeding line (A82 with a black seed coat) was formed. After cultivating the genotypes, the seed loss (%) and its relationship with the poly-phenolic compounds and Cyanidin-3-glucoside of the seed coat extract were examined. Agricultural and phyto-chemical trait data were analyzed through a completely random block design. With a significant difference from other samples, a minimum damage percentage was observed in Lanatus, Glaucus, and A82 genotypes with a black coat (P < 0.05). The concentration of phenolic compounds, that is, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and p-coumaric acid, except for ferulic acid, was almost equal in all genotypes. However, there was an inverse and direct rela-tionship between the concentration of four polyphenolic compounds (rutin, apigenin, quercetin, and ferulic acid) and Cyd-3-glu content with resistance safflower fly, respectively. In general, flavonoid compounds, that is, rutin, quercetin, and apigenin, affect the resistance probably through antibiosis mechanism so that there was a negative relationship between the concentration of these compounds and resistance to safflower fly.

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