Facing tropane alkaloid contamination in millet Analytical and processing aspects

Main Article Content

Jens Begemann
Saman Ostovar
Christine Schwake-Anduschus

Keywords

Datura stramonium, Panicum miliaceum, atropine, scopolamine, cereal cleaning

Abstract

Thorn Apple or Jimson Weed (Datura stramonium) is a tropane alkaloid containing widespread pest plant growing in central Europe. This pest predominantly occurs in millet, buckwheat and maize cultivation. Therefore, sound cleaning of these crops is just as pivotal as reliable analytics. The cleaning of millet at laboratory scale with commercial mechanical cleaning devices, such as sieves, indented separators or table sorters without using colour sorters, reduces the dark coloured Datura seed content by up to 99%. Nevertheless, the few remaining Datura seeds (up to one nut per 30 kg) could lead to an exceedance of the European Union (EU) limit values for tropane alkaloids in baby food. However, plant material other than seeds or even invisible abrasion of Datura seeds can contaminate the millet during harvest, handling, cleaning processes or crop transportation. Contamination originating from adhesive dust can be removed by dehulling the kernels, and a reduction below the EU detection limit could be achieved.

Abstract 60 | PDF Downloads 19 XML Downloads 0 HTML Downloads 1

References

Aboling, S., Rieger, H., Kolln, M., Tenhundfeld, J., Roerink, G., Platje, N. et al. 2019. Feed refusal in fattening bulls because of maize silage contamination by Jimson weed (Datura stramo-nium). Tieraerztliche Praxis Ausgabe Grosstiere Nutztiere 47: 125–130. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-0862-5781
Berkov, S., Zayed, R. and Doncheva, T., 2006. Alkaloid patterns in some varieties of Datura stramonium. Fitoterapia 77: 179–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2006.01.002
Beta, T. and Ndolo, V.U., 2019. Postharvest technologies. In: J.R.N. Taylor and K.G. Duodu (Eds.), Sorghum and millets. 2nd ed. AACC International Press. St Paul, Minnesota, USA pp. 69–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811527-5.00004-6
Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/239 of 19 February 2016 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as regards maximum levels of tropane alkaloids in certain cereal-based foods for infants and young children, OJ L 45, 2016, p. 3–5
Dräger, B., 2002. Analysis of tropane and related alkaloids. Journal of Chromatography A 978: 1–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S00219673(02)01387-0
Edmonds, J.M., Heller, J. and Engels, J., 1997. Black nightshades. Solanum nigrum L. and related species. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy.
EFSA, 2013. Scientific opinion on tropane alkaloids in food and feed. EFSA Journal 11: 3386. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2013. 3386
Franzmann, C., Wächter, J., Dittmer, N. and Humpf, H.-U., 2010. Ricinoleic acid as a marker for ergot impurities in rye and rye products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58: 4223– 4229. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1006903
Fretz, R., Schmid, D., Brueller, W., Girsch, L., Pichler, A.M., Riediger, et al. 2007. Food poisoning due to Jimson weed mimicking Bacillus cereus food intoxication in Austria, 2006. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 11: 557–558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2007.03.003
Friedman, M. and Levin, C.E., 1989. Composition of jimson weed (Datura stramonium) seeds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 37: 998–1005. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00088a040
Glaizal, M., Schmitt, C., Tichadou, L., Sapori, J.-M., Hayek-Lanthois,  M. and de Haro, L., 2013. Intoxications induites par de la farine de sarrasin Bio contaminée par Datura Sp.: rôle d’un centre antipoison et de toxicovigilance. La Presse Médicale 42: 1412–1415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2013.04.014
Graeber, M., Kniel, B., Moser, M. and Striegl, P., 2016. Control of ergot alkaloids in industrial milling. Milling and Grain 127: 46–54.
Gull, A., Nayik, G., Prasad, K. and Kumar, P., 2016. Technological, processing and nutritional approach of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana)—a mini review. Journal of Food Processing and Technology 07. https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000593
Hagood, E.S., Bauman, T.T., Williams, J.L. and Schreiber, M.M., 1981. Growth analysis of soybeans (Glycine max) in competition with jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). Weed Science 29: 500–504. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043174500040066
Karimmojeni, H., Rahimian Mashhadi, H., Alizadeh, H.M., Cousens, R.D. and Beheshtian Mesgaran, M., 2010. Interference between maize and Xanthium strumarium or Datura stramonium. Weed Research 50: 253–261. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.13653180.2010.00766.x
Kirkpatrick, B.L., Wax, L.M. and Stoller, E.W., 1983. Competition of jimsonweed with soybean. Agronomy Journal 75: 833–836. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1983.00021962007500050024x
Krenzelok, E.P., 2010. Aspects of Datura poisoning and treatment. Clinical Toxicology 48: 104–110. https://doi.org/10.3109/15563651003630672
Miraldi, E., Masti, A., Ferri, S. and Barni Comparini, I., 2001. Distribution of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in Datura stramonium. Fitoterapia 72: 644–648. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0367-326X(01)00291-X
Mulder, P.P.J., de Nijs, M., Castellari, M., Hortos, M., MacDonald, S., Crews, C., et al. 2016. Occurrence of tropane alkaloids in food. EFSA Supporting Publications 13: 1140E. https://doi.org/10.2903/sp.efsa.2016.EN-1140
Mulder, P.P.J., Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H., Hoogenboom, R.L.A.P., Stoppelaar, d.J. and Nijs, d.M., 2015. Tropane and ergot alkaloids in grain-based products for infants and young children in the Netherlands in 2011–2014. Food Additives & Contaminants Part B-Surveillance 8(4): 284–290. https://doi.org/10.1080/1939 3210.2015.1089947
Perhari?, L., Koželj, G., Družina, B. and Stanovnik, L., 2013. Risk assessment of buckwheat flour contaminated by thorn-apple (Datura stramonium L.) alkaloids: a case study from Slovenia. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 30: 321–330. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2012.743189
Rwiza, H.T., 1991. Jimson weed food poisoning. An epidemic at Usangi rural government hospital. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 43: 85–90.
Steenkamp, P.A., Harding, N.M., van Heerden, F.R. and van  Wyk,  B.E., 2004. Fatal datura poisoning: identification of atropine and scopolamine by high performance liquid chromatography/photodiode array/mass spectrometry. Forensic Science International 145: 31–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. forsciint.2004.03.011