Main Article Content
maize Italian germplasm, fungal pathogen, artificial inoculation, nutritional quality, mycotoxins
White maize varieties were mainly grown in Italy before the advent of hybrids. The characterisation of their nutritional quality and safety will help to enhance the biodiversity of traditional materials, and to exploit it for food production. In fact, in recent years attention has been focused on the use of white maize varieties for the preparation of maize-based gluten-free products for coeliacs. Moreover it is also known that mycotoxin contamination of maize grain is a global threat to the safety of both human food and feed. In order to recover the biodiversity of traditionally maize, twenty-one Italian white maize varieties available at CREA Bergamo genebank were cultivated in Bergamo and Cremona in 2016. These genotypes were evaluated for grain chemical composition and agronomic performance; moreover an inoculation trial was carried out to test their resistance/susceptibility to Fusarium verticillioides. Chemical composition of the grain showed a wide range of variability; the samples from Bergamo accumulated more starch, whereas the plants grown in Cremona showed a higher content of proteins, lipids and total antioxidant capacity. Some varieties (VA86, VA1239 and VA1245) were valuable in both environments for their protein and lipid content, while VA185 showed a good 1000 kernels weight, in addition to interesting values of yield and test weight. Considerable variability was observed in fumonisin contamination. The response to fungal attack was very different in the two environments, the varieties grown in Cremona showed higher number of infected kernels at the inoculum point and higher level of fumonisins compared to the plants grown in Bergamo. Interestingly, some varieties (VA117, VA1213) showed a low fumonisin contamination in both locations. These genotypes could be potentially suitable for breeding programs with the aim to find new sources of genetic variability to improve the nutritional quality of maize genotypes and their resistance to pathogens.
Balconi, C., Berardo, N., Locatelli, S., Lanzanova, C., Torri, A. and Redaelli, R., 2014. Evaluation of ear rot (Fusarium verticillioides) resistance and fumonisin accumulation in Italian maize inbred lines. Phytopatologia Mediterranea 53(1): 14-26.
Berardo, N., Lanzanova, C., Locatelli, S., Laganà, P., Verderio, A. and Motto, M., 2011. Levels of total fumonisins in maize samples from Italy during 2006-2008. Food Additives and Contaminants 4(2): 116-124.
Berardo, N., Mazzinelli, G., Valoti, P., Laganà, P. and Redaelli, R., 2009. Characterisation of maize germplasm for the chemical composition of the grain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57(6): 2378-2384.
Berardo, N., Pisacane, E., Valoti, P., Mariotti, M., D’Egidio, M.G. and Moscaritolo, S., 2006. Development of innovative maize based products as functional foods. Tecnica Molitoria International 57(5A): 103-108.
Bitocchi, E., Nanni, L., Rossi, M., Rau, D., Bellucci, E., Giardini, A., Buonamici, A., Vendramin, G.G. and Papa, R., 2009. Introgression from modern hybrid varieties into landrace populations of maize (Zea mays ssp. Mays L.) in central Italy. Molecular Ecology 18: 603-621.
Brandolini, A. and Brandolini, A., 2001. Classification of Italian maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 126: 1-11.
Brandolini, A. and Brandolini, A., 2009. Maize introduction, evolution and diffusion in Italy. Maydica 54: 233-242.
Brewer, M.S., 2011. Natural antioxidants: sources, compounds, mechanisms of action, and potential applications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 10: 221-247.
Camardo Leggieri, M., Bertuzzi, T., Pietri, A. and Battilani, P., 2015. Mycotoxin occurrence in maize produced in Northern Italy over the years 2009-2011: focus on the role of crop related factors. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 54(2): 212-221.
Cao, A., Santiago, R., Ramos, A.J., Souto, X.C., Aguin, O., Malvar, R.A. and Burtòn, A., 2014. Critical environmental and genotypic factors for Fusarium verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin contamination in maize grown in northwestern Spain. International Journal of Food Microbiology 177: 63-71.
Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), 2003. Mycotoxins: risks in plant, animal, and human systems. Task Force report 139. CAST, Ames, IA, USA.
Castegnaro, M. and McGregor, D., 1998. Carcinogenic risk assessment of mycotoxins. Revue de Médecin Vétérinaire 419: 671-678.
Community Plant Variety Office (CPVO), 2010. CPVO-TP/002/3. Protocol for distinctness, uniformity and stability test (Zea mays L.). Available at:http://cpvo.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/TP/agricoles/TP_002-3_ZEA_MAYS.pdf.
European Commission (EC), 2006. Regulation No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. EC, Brussels, Belgium.
European Commission (EC), 2007. Regulation No 1126/2007 of 28 September 2007 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs as regards Fusarium toxins in maize and maize products. EC, Brussels, Belgium.
Guelpa, A., Bevilacqua, M., Marini, F., O’Kennedy, K., Geladi, P. and Manley, M., 2015. Application of Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) viscograms and chemometrics for maize hardness characterization. Food Chemistry 173: 1220-1227.
Hammer, ?., Harper, D.A.T. and Ryan, P.D., 2001. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4(1): 9.
Hartings, H., Berardo, N., Mazzinelli, G., Valoti, P., Verderio, A. and Motto, M., 2008. Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among maize (Zea mays L.) Italian landraces by morphological traits and AFLP profiling. Theoretical and Applied in Genetics 111: 831-842.
Lanzanova, C., Alfieri, M., Locatelli, S., Mascheroni, S., Facchinetti, F., Valoti, P., Balconi, C. and Redaelli, R., 2016. Quality and safety of Italian white maize varieties. Tecnica Molitoria International 16(17/A): 52-61.
Lonzano-Alejo, N., Vazquez Carrillo, G., Pixley, K. and Palacios-Rojas, N., 2007. Physical properties and carotenoid content of maize kernels and its nixtamalized snacks. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 8(3): 385-389.
Mesterházy, A., Lemmens M. and Reid, L.M., 2012. Breeding for resistance to ear rots caused by Fusarium spp. in maize – a review. Plant Breeding 131: 1-19.
Miedaner, T., Bolduan, C. and Melchinger, A.E., 2010. Aggressiveness and mycotoxin production of eight isolates each of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides for ear rot on susceptible and resistant early maize inbred lines. European Journal of Plant Pathology 127: 113-123.
Miller, J.D., 2001. Factors that affect the occurrence of fumonisins. Environmental Health Perspectives 109: 321-324.
Nuss, E.T. and Tanumihardjo, S.A., 2010. Maize: a paramount staple crop in the context of global nutrition. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 4(9): 417-436.
Pereira, P., Ibañez, S.G., Agostini, E. and Etcheverry, M., 2011. Effects of maize inoculation with Fusarium verticillioides and with two bacterial biocontrol agents on seedlings growth and antioxidative enzymatic activities. Applied Soil Ecology 51: 52-59.
Pietri, A., Battilani, P., Gualla, A. and Bertuzzi, T., 2012. Mycotoxin levels in maize produced in northern Italy in 2008 as influenced by growing location and FAO class of hybrid. World Mycotoxin Journal 5: 409-418.
Redaelli, R., Alfieri, M. and Cabassi, G., 2016. Development of a NIRS calibration for total antioxidant capacity in maize germplasm. Talanta 154: 164-168.
Reid, L.M., Hamilton, R.I. and Mather, D.E., 1996. Screening maize for resistance to Gibberella ear rot. Technical Bulletin 1996-5E, Research Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food, St. John’s, NL, Canada.
Rooney, L.W. and Serna Saldívar, S.O., 2003. Food use of whole corn and dry-milled fractions. In: White, P.J. and Johnson, L.A. (eds.) Corn: chemistry and technology, 2nd edition. AACC, St. Paul, MN, USA, pp. 495-535.
Serpen, A., Capuano, E., Fogliano, V. and Gökmen, V., 2007. A new procedure to measure the antioxidant activity of insoluble food components. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55: 7676-7681.
Tafuri, A., Alfieri, M. and Redaelli, R., 2014. Determination of soluble phenolics content in Italian maize varieties and lines. Tecnica Molitoria International 65(15/A): 60-69.
Torri, A., Lanzanova, C., Locatelli, S., Valoti, P. and Balconi, C., 2015. Screening of local Italian maize varieties for resistance to Fusarium verticillioides. Maydica 60(1): 1-8.
Zeppa, G., Bertolino, M. and Rolle, L., 2011. Quantitative descriptive analysis of Italian polenta produced with different corn cultivars. Journal Science and Food Agriculture 92: 412-417.