The efficiency of various household processing for removing chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in Chinese kale and Pakchoi

Main Article Content

Phannika Tongjai
Surat Hongsibsong https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5510-5905
Ratana Sapbamrer https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0379-2798

Keywords

Chlorpyrifos; Cypermethrin; household washing; GC-FPD; GC-ECD

Abstract

The vegetables, Chinese kale and Pakchoi, which are popular among the Thai people, are found to have problems with residues of pesticide. The pesticide residues in both Kale and Pakchoi were chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. This research was to study the efficiency of pesticide residue reduction in Chinese kale and Pakchoi samples by using various household wash processing. The process included washing with normal water, 0.10% NaCl, baking soda, water flowing, and blanching. Pesticide residues were extracted from Chinese kale and Pakchoi to determine the amount of chlorpyriphos and cypermethrin residue by using analytical tools such as Gas Chromatography— Flame Photometric Detector (FPD) and Gas Chromatography—Electron Capture Detector (ECD). The results showed that the household processes for reducing the chlorpyrifos residue in Chinese kale and Pakchoi were the following: residues were reduced by 52.70–65.41%, 58.33–62.14%, 59.46–80.52%, and 46.04–62.85% when washed with normal water, 0.10% NaCl, baking soda, and water flowing through, respectively. Similarly, the household processes for reducing cypermethrin residue in Chinese kale and Pakchoi were the following: residues were reduced by 51.13–66.29%, 33.75–45.65%, 38.14–63.64%, and 44.88–61.63% when washed with normal water, 10% NaCl, baking soda, and water flowing through, respectively. Also, blanching reduced the chlorpyrifos residue by 37.96–50.44% and the cypermethrin residue by 47.86–52.42%. Therefore, while washing vegetables by soaking and dissolving substances, baking soda is the most effective when used for washing for at least 15 min to reduce the residue of pesticides. The consumers should be provided vegetables that are cleaned and have had a proper washing for removing pesticide residues and toxic residues.

Abstract 117 | PDF Downloads 48 XML Downloads 4 HTML Downloads 6

References

Harinathareddy, A., Prasad, N. B. L., and Devi, K. L., 2014. Effect of household processing methods on the removal of pesticide residue in tomato vegetable. Environment research and Development, 9, 5057.
Adachi, A., and Okano, T., 2006. Pesticide Residue Reduction in Selected Vegetables Using Rice-Bran. Journal of Health Science, 52, 320–323. https://doi.org/10.1248/jhs.52.320
Athulya, R., Kang, B. K., and Sahoo, S. 2019. Effect of washing and boiling on pesticide residue reduction of diafenthiuron in Brinjal and cabbage. Journal of entomology and zoology studies, 7, 1511–1517.
Akoto, Osei, Addai-Mensah, Fredrick, & Abavare, Eric K. K. (2016). Effects of per-household processes on the levels of chlorpyrifos residues in lettuce (Lactuca sativa). International Journal of Food Contamination, 3(1), 13. doi:10.1186/s40550-016-0037-3
Bajwa, U., and Sandhu, K. S., 2014. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(2), 201–220. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0499-5
Chandra, S., Kumar, M., Mahindrakar, A. N., and Shinde, L., 2015. Effects of household processing on reduction of pesticide residues in brinjal and okra. International journal of advances in pharmacy, biology and chemistry, 4(1), 98–102.
Chauhan, R., Kumari, B., and Rana, M. K., 2014. Effect of fruit and vegetable processing on reduction of synthetic pyrethroid residues. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 229, 89–110. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-03777-6_5
Debbab, M., El Hajjaji, S., Aly, A. H., Abdelmalek, D., and Zrineh, A., 2014. Cypermethrin residues in fresh vegetables: Detection by HPLC and LC-ESIMS and their effect on antioxidant activity. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science, 5, 2257–2264.
De Souza, L. P., Faroni, L. R. D. A., Heleno, F. F., Pinto, F. G., de Queiroz, M. E. L. R., and Prates, L. H. F., 2018. Ozone treatment for pesticide removal from carrots: Optimization by response surface methodology. Food Chemistry, 243, 435–441. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.09.134
Gavahian, M., Tsai, M. J., and Mousavi Khaneghah, A., 2020. The resistance of chlorpyrifos pesticide pollution against arc and dielectric barrier discharge plasma. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, 243, 435–441. https://doi.org/10.15586/qas.v12iSP1.807
Hongsibsong, S., and Sapbamrer, R., 2018. Removal of organophosphorus pesticide residues in leaf and non-leaf vegetables by using ozone water. Chiang Mai Journal of Science, 45, 1759–1769.
Kar, A., Mandal, K., and Singh, B., 2012. Decontamination of Chlorantraniliprole Residues on Cabbage and Cauliflower through Household Processing Methods. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 88, 501–506. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0534-x
Klinhom, P., Halee, A., and Methawiwat, S., 2008. The effectiveness of household chemicals in residue removal of methomyl and carbaryl pesticides on Chinese-kale. Agriculture and Natural Resources, 42(5), 136–143.
Krol, W. J., Arsenault, T. L., Pylypiw, H. M., and Incorvia Mattina, M. J., 2000. Reduction of Pesticide Residues on Produce by Rinsing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(10), 4666–4670. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0002894
Kumari, B., 2008. Effects of household processing on reduction of pesticide residues in vegetables. ARPN J Agric Biol Sci, 3.
Ling, Y., Wang, H., Yong, W., Zhang, F., Sun, L., Yang, M.-L., Wu, Y., and Chu, X.-G., 2011. The effects of washing and cooking on chlorpyrifos and its toxic metabolites in vegetables. Food Control, 22, 54–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.06.009
Liang, Y., Wang, W., Shen, Y., Liu, Y., and Liu, X. J., 2012. Effects of home preparation on organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw cucumber. Food Chemistry, 133(3), 636–640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.016
Mahdavi, V., Eslami, Z., Golmohammadi, G., Tajdar-Oranj, B., Keikavousi Behbahan, A., and Mousavi Khaneghah, A., 2021. Simultaneous determination of multiple pesticide residues in Iranian saffron: A probabilistic health risk assessment. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2021.103915
Pakvilai, N., Prapamontol, T., Thavornyutikarn, P., Mangklabruks, A., Chantara, S., and Santasup, C., 2011. Residues of synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in vegetables, fruit, sediment and water from an intensive agricultural area (Fang district, Chiang Mai, Thailand) Sustainability Today, 167, 201–210. https://doi.org/10.2495/ST110181
Phan, K. T. K., Phan, H. T., Boonyawan, D., Intipunya, P., Brennan, C. S., Regenstein, J. M., and Phimolsiripol, Y., 2018. Non-thermal plasma for elimination of pesticide residues in mango. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 48, 164–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2018.06.009
Radwan, M. A., Abu-Elamayem, M. M., Shiboob, M. H., and Abdel-Aal, A., 2005. Residual behaviour of profenofos on some field-grown vegetables and its removal using various washing solutions and household processing. Food Chem Toxicol, 43(4), 553–557. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2004.12.009
Sapbamrer, R., and Hongsibsong, S., 2014. Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Vegetables From Farms, Markets, and a Supermarket Around Kwan Phayao Lake of Northern Thailand. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 67(1), 60–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-014-0014-x
Satpathy, G., Tyagi, Y. K., and Gupta, R. K., 2012. Removal of Organophosphorus (OP) Pesticide Residues from Vegetables Using Washing Solutions and Boiling. Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v4n2p69
Satheannoppakao, W., and Pradipasen, M., 2009. Fruit and vegetable consumption and its recommended intake associated with sociodemographic factors: Thailand National Health Examination Survey III. Public Health Nutrition, 12, 2192–2198.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980009005837
Ta, A., Ahlawat, S., and Devi, S., 2018. Impact of Different Decontamination Processes on the Reduction of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7, 869–876. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.705.106
Wanwimolruk, S., Kanchanamayoon, O., Phopin, K., and Prachayasittikul, V., 2015. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries. Science of the Total Environment, 532, 447–455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.114
Zhang, Z.-Y., Liu, X.-J., and Hong, X.-Y., 2007. Effects of home preparation on pesticide residues in cabbage. Food Control, 18(12), 1484–1487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.11.002