Bioaccessibility and health risk of neonicotinoids in apple and pear samples as affected by in vitro digestion

Main Article Content

Jia-Yu Wang
Dong Wei
Ya-Jing Deng
Wen-Zhe Feng
Qun Gao
Yan-Hong Shi
Jin-Jing Xiao


bioaccessibility; fruits; in vitro methods; neonicotinoids; risk assessment


Previous studies have only focused on the bioaccessibility of single pesticide/metal without considering the potential impact of post-uptake interactions on bioaccessibility of pesticides/metals in the human digestive system. Hence, the influences of chromium (Cr) speciation on neonicotinoids bioaccessibility were investigated and the potential health risk based on the oral bioaccessibility was evaluated. Bioaccessibility of four neonicotinoids in apple and pear was measured using three common in vitro methods (SBRC, PBET, and IVG). Bioaccessibility of neonicotinoids in apple and pear varied between in vitro methods, which may reflect the difference of determination parameters (i.e., pH values, incubation time, and constituents). The neonicotinoids bioaccessibility was remarkably reduced by 17.21–81.21% and 11.61–73.70% with the addition of Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively. Risk assessment based on the hazard quotient (HQ) with bioaccessibility revealed that exposure to pesticide residues in the tested fruits were all below levels that might pose a health risk. These findings are of theoretical value for the safety evaluation of pesticide residues on food.

Abstract 29 | PDF Downloads 6 XML Downloads 1 HTML Downloads 4


Ayala-Bribiesca, E., Lussier, M., Chabot, D., Turgeon, S. and Britten,  M., 2016. Effect of calcium enrichment of Cheddar cheese on its structure, in vitro digestion and lipid bioaccessibility. International Dairy Journal 53: 1–9.
Bempah, C., Agyekum, A., Akuamoa, F., Frimpong, S. and Buah-Kwofie, A., 2016. Dietary exposure to chlorinated pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Ghanaian markets. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 46: 103–113.
Bruzzoniti, M., Abollino, O., Pazzi, M., Rivoira, L., Giacomino, A. and Vincenti, M., 2017. Chromium, nickel, and cobalt in cosmetic matrices: an integrated bioanalytical characterization through total content, bioaccessibility, and Cr(III)/Cr(VI) speciation. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 409(29): 6831–6841.
Chang, C.H., Yu, C.J., Du, J.C., Chiou, H.C., Chen, H.C., Yang, W., Chung, M.Y., Chen, Y.S., Hwang, B., Mao, I.F. and Chen, M.L., 2018. The interactions among organophosphate pesticide exposure, oxidative stress, and genetic polymorphisms of dopamine receptor D4 increase the risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Environmental Research 160: 339–346.
Cui, X., Xiang, P., He, R., Juhasz, A. and Ma, L., 2016. Advances in in vitro methods to evaluate oral bioaccessibility of PAHs and PBDEs in environmental matrices. Chemosphere 150: 378–389.
Diacomanolis, V., Noller, B. and Ng, J., 2014. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of arsenic are influenced by the presence of cadmium. Chemosphere 112: 203–209.
Dong, Z., Yan, K., Liu, Y., Naidu, R., Duan, L. and Wijayawardena, A., 2016. A meta-analysis to correlate lead bioavailability and bio-accessibility and predict lead bioavailability. Environment International 92–93: 139–145.
Fujimori, T., Taniguchi, M., Agusa, T., Shiota, K., Takaoka, M., Yoshida, A., Terazono, A., Ballesteros, F. and Takigami, H., 2018. Effect of lead speciation on its oral bioaccessibility in surface dust and soil of electronic-wastes recycling sites. Journal of Hazardous Materials 341: 365–372.
Garau, M., Garau, G., Diquattro, S., Roggero, P. and Castaldi, P., 2019. Mobility, bioaccessibility and toxicity of potentially toxic elements in a contaminated soil treated with municipal solid waste compost. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 186: 109766.
Hlihor, R., Pogăcean, M., Rosca, M., Cozma, P. and Gavrilescu, M., 2019. Modelling the behavior of pesticide residues in tomatoes and their associated long-term exposure risks. Journal of Environmental Management 233: 523–529.
Kang, Y., Pan, W., Liang, S., Li, N., Zeng, L. and Zhang, Q., 2016. Assessment of relative bioavailability of heavy metals in soil using in vivo mouse model and its implication for risk assessment compared with bioaccessibility using in vitro assay. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 38(5): 1183–1191.
Laird, B., Weiseth, B., Packull-Mccormick, S, Peak, D., Dodd, M. and Siciliano, S., 2015. Solid–liquid separation method governs the in vitro bioaccessibility of metals in contaminated soil-like test materials. Chemosphere 134: 544–549.
Li, A.J. and Kannan, K., 2020. Profiles of urinary neonicoti-noids and dialkylphosphates in populations in nine coun-tries. Environment International 145: 106120.
Li, J., Li, K., Cave, M., Li, H. and Ma, L., 2015b. Lead bioaccessibility in 12 contaminated soils from China: Correlation to lead relative bioavailability and lead in different fractions. Journal of Hazardous Materials 295: 55–62.
Li, S., Li, J., Li, H., Naidu, R. and Ma, L., 2015a. Arsenic bioaccessi-bility in contaminated soils: coupling in vitro assays with sequen-tial and HNO3 extraction. Journal of Hazardous Materials 295: 145–152.
Liu, Y., Ma, J., Yan, H., Ren, Y., Wang, B. and Lin, C., 2016. Bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of arsenic in soil and indoor dust in rural and urban areas of Hubei province, China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 126: 14–22.
Lundqvist, J., Hellman, B. and Oskarsson, A., 2016. Fungicide prochloraz induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in vitro. Food and Chemical Toxicology 91: 36–41.
Ning, Z., Liu, E., Yao, D., Xiao, T., Ma, L., Liu, Y. and Liu, C., 2021. Contamination, oral bioaccessibility and human health risk assessment of thallium and other metal(loid)s in farm-land soils around a historic Tl-Hg mining area. Science of the Total Environment 758: 143577.
Obuekwe, I. and Semple, K., 2013. Impact of Zn, Cu, Al and Fe on the partitioning and bioaccessibility of 14C-phenanthrene in soil. Environmental Pollution 180: 180–189.
Rahman, E., Momin, A., Zhao, L., Guo, X., Xu, D. and Zhou, F., 2018. Bioactive, nutritional composition, heavy metal and pesticide residue of four Chinese jujube cultivars. Food Science and Biotechnology 27(2): 323–331.
Ruby, M., Lowney, Y., Bunge, A., Roberts, S., Gomez-Eyles, J., Ghosh,  U., Kissel, J., Tomlinson, P. and Menzie, C., 2016. Oral bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and dermal absorption of PAHs from soil—state of the science. Environmental Science  & Technology 50(5): 2151–2164.
Schroder, L., Basta, N., Casteel, S., Evans, T. and Si, J., 2004. Validation of the in vitro gastrointestinal (IVG) method to esti-mate relative bioavailable lead in contaminated soils. Journal of Environmental Quality 33(2): 513–521. jeq2004.5130
Shi, Y., Xiao, J., Liu, Y., Fu, Y., Ye, Z., Liao, M. and Cao, H., 2019. Interactions of food matrix and dietary components on neonicotinoid bioaccessibility in raw fruit and vegetables. Food & Function 10(1): 289–295.
Szpyrka, E., Kurdziel, A., Matyaszek, A., Podbielska, M., Rupar, J. and Słowik-Borowiec, M., 2015. Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from the region of south-eastern Poland. Food Control 48: 137–142. foodcont.2014.05.039
Wang, J., Li, S., Cui, X., Li, H., Qian, X. and Wang, C., 2016. Bioaccessibility, sources and health risk assessment of trace metals in urban park dust in Nanjing, Southeast China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 128: 161–170.
Xia, Q., Peng, C., Lamb, D., Mallavarapu, M., Naidu, R. and Ng, J., 2016. Bioaccessibility of arsenic and cadmium assessed for in vitro bioaccessibility in spiked soils and their interaction during the Unified BARGE Method (UBM) extraction. Chemosphere 147: 444–450.
Xing, G., Rui, X., Wang, D., Liu, M., Chen, X. and Dong, M., 2017. Effect of fermentation pH on protein bioaccessibility of soymilk curd with added tea polyphenols as assessed by in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65(50): 11125–11132.
Yager, J., Greene, T. and Schoof, R., 2015. Arsenic relative bioavailability from diet and airborne exposures: implications for risk assessment. Science of The Total Environment 536: 368–381.
Yin, N., Du, H., Zhang, Z., Cai, X., Li, Z. and Sun, G., 2016. Variability of arsenic bioaccessibility and metabolism in soils by human gut microbiota using different in vitro methods combined with SHIME. Science of the Total Environment 566–567: 1670–1677.
Yu, R., Liu, Q., Liu, J., Wang, Q. and Wang, Y., 2016. Concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides in fresh vegetables and related human health risk assessment in Changchun, Northeast China. Food Control 60: 353–360.
Zhao, X., Shi, C., Zhou, X., Lin, T. and Fang, J., 2019. Preparation of a nanoscale dihydromyricetin-phospholipid complex to improve the bioavailability: in vitro and in vivo evaluations. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 138: 104994.
Zhuang, P., Zhang, C., Li, Y., Zou, B., Mo, H. and Wu, K., 2016. ssessment of influences of cooking on cadmium and arsenic bioaccessibility in rice, using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test. Food Chemistry 213: 206–214.