Flat bread: ingredients and fortification

Main Article Content

Hanee M. Al-Dmoor

Keywords

flat bread, flour, fortification, ingredients, wheat

Abstract

Flat bread is simple bread made from flattened dough of flour, water, salt, yeast and other optional ingredients. The manufacture of flat bread necessitates special characteristics in flour and dough. Additional (optional) ingredients may be used for processing aids which are essential in particular in the bread-making process, in improving the quality and for fortification of bread to have more nutritive value. Milk, eggs, other cereals, legumes, dates or date syrup, dried fruits, leafy vegetables, cassava, green banana, flaxseed flour, sesame, black seeds, species, meat, and dried or fresh herbs might be added to the formula of the bread. In addition to protein, vitamins and minerals, fibres are the most commonly used nutrients for fortifying flat breads. More development of flat bread products is essential.

Abstract 25 | PDF Downloads 152

References

Abdel-Kader Z.M. (2001) Enrichment of Egyptian Balady bread. Part 2. Nutritional values and biological evaluation of enrichment with decorticated cracked broad beans flour(Vicia fabaL.) Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 45,31–34.
Amr A. (1988) A preliminary study of Arab Middle Eastern breads with reference to Jordan. Dirasat,15, 81–98.
Frankel E.N. (2011) Nutritional and biological properties of extra virgin olive oil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(3), 785–792.
Hertrampf E., Cortés F. (2004) Folic acid fortification of wheat flour. Nutrition Reviews, 62(6), 44–48.
Hoover W.J. (1974) Use of soy in bakery products. Cereal Chemistry, 51, 376–382.
IFM’s Advisory Committee on Child Health and Nutrition(ACCN). (2003) Food fortification for reducing micronutrient deficiencies: public-private partnerships. International Association of Infant Food Manufacturers. Available at http://www.ifm.net/industry/food_fortification.htm [Last accessed 12 May 2011].
Ilaiyaraja N., Khanum F. (2010)Nigella sativa L: a review of therapeutic applications. Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology, 4(2), 1–8.
Jooyandeh H. (2009) Evaluation of physical and sensory properties of Iranian Lavash flat bread supplemented with precipitated whey protein (PWP). African Journal of Food Science, 3, 28–34.
Masoodi F., Chauhan G. (1998) Use of apple pomace as a source of dietary fiber in wheat bread. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 22, 255–263.
Oomah B. (2001) Flaxseed as a functional food source. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81, 889–894.
Qarooni J., Ponte J., Posner S. (1992) Flat bread of the world. Cereal Foods World, 37, 863–865.
Qarooni J., Wootton M., McMaster G. (1989) Factors affecting the quality of Middle East bread – additional ingredients. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 48, 235–244.
Ranhotra G.S., Gelroth J.A., Leinen S.D. (2000) Utilization of calcium in breads highly fortified with calcium as calcium carbonate or as dairy calcium. Cereal Chemistry, 77,293–296.
Romana L.D., Lonnerdal D., Brown K.H. (2003) Absorption of zinc from wheat products fortified with iron and either zinc sulfate or zinc oxide. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78, 279–283.
Saldamli I. (1996) Zinc-supplemented bread and its utilization in zinc deficiency. Cereal Chemistry,73, 424–427.
Shittu T., Raji O., Sanni O. (2007) Bread from composite cassava-wheat flour: I. effect of baking time and temperature on some physical properties of bread loaf.Food ResearchInternational, 40, 280–290.
Tsen C., Hoover W. (1973) High-protein bread from wheat flour fortified with full-fat soy flour. Cereal Chemistry, 50,7–15.
Valéria C., Marta B., Jesuí V., Graciette M. (2010) Quinoa and flaxseed: potential ingredients in the production of bread with functional quality. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 53(4), 981–986.
WHO/EMRO. (2004) Flour fortification as a strategy to combat anemia in the Eastern Mediterranean, Middle East and North Africa: the MI fund. Available at http://www.emro.who.int/arabic/nfs/FlourFortification-Publications.htm [Last accessed12 May 2011].
WHO/EMRO. (2009) Draft nutrition strategy and plan of action for the Eastern Mediterranean Region 2010–2019Available at http://www.emro.who.int/nutrition/pdf/nutrition_strategy_2010_2019.pdf [Last accessed 12 May 2011].
WHO/UNICEF/MI. (2003) Flour fortification: reporting accomplishments. Report of a Joint WHO/UNICEF/MIinter-country technical review meeting on flour fortification. Cairo, Egypt.