Flat bread: ingredients and fortification

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Hanee M. Al-Dmoor


flat bread, flour, fortification, ingredients, wheat


Flat bread is simple bread made from flattened dough of flour, water, salt, yeast and other optional ingredients. The manufacture of flat bread necessitates special characteristics in flour and dough. Additional (optional) ingredients may be used for processing aids which are essential in particular in the bread-making process, in improving the quality and for fortification of bread to have more nutritive value. Milk, eggs, other cereals, legumes, dates or date syrup, dried fruits, leafy vegetables, cassava, green banana, flaxseed flour, sesame, black seeds, species, meat, and dried or fresh herbs might be added to the formula of the bread. In addition to protein, vitamins and minerals, fibres are the most commonly used nutrients for fortifying flat breads. More development of flat bread products is essential.

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