Evaluation of the differences in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of five green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) cultivars

Main Article Content

X.H. Chen
L.H. Ma
Y.W. Dong
H. Song
Y. Pu
Q.Y. Zhou

Keywords

green asparagus, phenolics, antioxidant, correlation, PCA

Abstract

Phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activities were analysed in five green asparagus cultivars (Grande, Altas, UC800, UC301 and UC157). In addition, the colours as well as the lignin, amino acid, and microelement contents of the asparagus cultivars were assessed. Cultivar ‘Grande’ had the best greenness (a*=-12.47), the highest vitamin C (59.1 mg/kg) and microelement contents (282.3 mg/kg) and the lowest lignin content (0.92%). Cultivar ‘UC301’ had the highest amino acid content (3.95 g/kg), and cultivar ‘UC157’ had the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. Correlations were determined to evaluate the relationship between phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds, particularly rutin, are major contributors to the antioxidant activity of green asparagus, with a correlation coefficient of r=0.977-0.982. A principal component analysis was then performed to investigate the interrelationships between the parameters and the investigated cultivars. The results showed that cultivars ‘UC157’ and ‘Grande’ had high total phenolic and rutin contents and consequently high antioxidant activity. The cultivar had a marked influence on bioactive constituents, particularly the phenolic compound content and composition, and on the antioxidant activity of green asparagus, which may provide a basis for improved health benefits and breeding programs.

Abstract 68 | PDF Downloads 52

References

Borbalán, A.M., Zorro, L., Guillén, D.A. and Barroso, C.G., 2003. Study of the polyphenol content of red and white grape varieties by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and its relationship to antioxidant power. Journal of Chromatography, Part A 1012: 31-38.
Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E. and Berset, C., 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT – Food Science and Technology 28: 25-30.
Drinkwater, J.M., Tsao, R., Liu, R., Defelice, C. and Wolyn, D.J., 2015. Effects of cooking on rutin and glutathione concentrations and antioxidant activity of green asparagus (Asparagus Officinalis) spears. Journal of Functional Foods 12: 342-353.
Ekholm, P., Reinivuo, H., Mattila, P., Pakkala, H., Koponen, J., Happonen, A., Hellström, J. and Ovaskainen, M., 2007. Changes in the mineral and trace element contents of cereals, fruits and vegetables in Finland. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 20: 487-495.
Ercisli, S., Ozdemir, O., Sengul, M., Orhan, E. and Gungor, N., 2007. Phenolic and antioxidant diversity among fruit species grown in Turkey. Asian Journal of Chemistry 19: 5751-5754.
Espin, S., Gonzalez-Manzano, S., Taco, V., Poveda, C., Ayuda-Durán, B., Gonzalez-Paramas, A.M. and Santos-Buelga, C., 2016. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of yellow and purple-red Ecuadorian cultivars of tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.) Food Chemistry 194: 1073-1080.
Flores, G., Wu, S.B., Negrin, A. and Kennelly, E.J., 2015. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seven cultivars of guava (Psidium guajava) fruits. Food Chemistry 170: 327-335.
Huang, S., Wu, Y., Liu, M. and Lai, X., 2010. Quantitative determination of total free-amino acid in Nervilia fordii (Hance) Schltr. by ninhydrin colorimetric method. Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine 17: 50-52.
Jorjong, S., Butkhup, L. and Samappito, S., 2015. Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities of Mao-Luang (Antidesma bunius L.) cultivars from north-eastern Thailand. Food Chemistry 181: 248-255.
Kim, S.K., Kim, D.S., Kim, D.Y. and Chun, C., 2015. Variation of bioactive compounds content of 14 oriental strawberry cultivars. Food Chemistry 184: 196-202.
Konczak, I. and Roulle, P., 2011. Nutritional properties of commercially grown native Australian fruits: lipophilic antioxidants and minerals. Food Research International 44: 2339-2344.
Kou, X., Chen, Q., Li, X., Li, M., Kan, C., Chen, B., Zhang, Y. and Xue, Z., 2015. Quantitative assessment of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of 15 jujube cultivars. Food Chemistry 173: 1037-1044.
Lau, M.H., Tang, J. and Swanson, B.G., 2000. Kinetics of textural and color changes in green asparagus during thermal treatments. Journal of Food Engineering 45: 231-236.
Liu, H., Cao, J. and Jiang, W., 2015. Evaluation and comparison of vitamin C, phenolic compounds, antioxidant properties and metal chelating activity of pulp and peel from selected peach cultivars. LWT – Food Science and Technology 63: 1042-1048.
Liu, Z. and Jiang, W., 2005. Study on changes of cell wall polysaccharides and phenols in lignification of green asparagus (Asparagus officinalisL.). Food Science 26: 95-97.
López, M.A.A., Rojas, R.M., Cosano, G.Z. and Segarra, P.J.S., 1999. Nutritional changes in the essential trace elements content of asparagus during industrial processing. Food Research International 32: 479-486.
Makris, D.P. and Rossiter, J.T., 2001. Domestic processing of onion bulbs (Allium cepa) and asparagus spears (Asparagus Officinalis): effect on flavonol content and antioxidant status. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 3216-3222.
Martínez-Valdivieso, D., Gómez, P., Font, R., Alonso-Moraga, Á. and Del Río-Celestino, M., 2015. Physical and chemical characterization in fruit from 22 summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivars. LWT – Food Science and Technology 64: 1225-1233.
Mastropasqua, L., Tanzarella, P. and Paciolla, C., 2016. Effects of postharvest light spectra on quality and health-related parameters in green Asparagus Officinalis L. Postharvest Biology and Technology 112: 143-151.
Mazzeo, T., N’Dri, D., Chiavaro, E., Visconti, A., Fogliano, V. and Pellegrini, N., 2011. Effect of two cooking procedures on phytochemical compounds, total antioxidant capacity and colour of selected frozen vegetables. Food Chemistry 128: 627-633.
Nindo, C.I., Sun, T., Wang, S.W., Tang, J. and Powers, J.R., 2003. Evaluation of drying technologies for retention of physical quality and antioxidants in asparagus (Asparagus Officinalis, L.). LWT – Food Science and Technology 36: 507-516.
Park, Y.S., Namiesnik, J., Vearasilp, K., Leontowicz, H., Leontowicz, M., Barasch, D., Nemirovski, A., Trakhtenberg, S. and Gorinstein, S., 2014. Bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity in new kiwi fruit cultivars. Food Chemistry 165: 354-361.
Rodríguez, R., Jaramillo, S., Rodríguez, G., Espejo, J.A., Guillén, R., Fernández-Bolanos, J., Heredia, A. and Jiménez, A., 2005. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts from several asparagus cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53: 5212-5217.
Šamec, D., Mareti?, M., Lugari?, I., Meši?, A., Salopek-Sondi, B. and Duralija, B., 2016. Assessment of the differences in the physical, chemical and phytochemical properties of four strawberry cultivars using principal component analysis. Food Chemistry 194: 828-834.
Šavikin, K., Živkovi?, J., Zduni?, G., Go?evac, D., ?or?evi?, B., Doj?inovi?, B. and ?or?evi?, N., 2014. Phenolic and mineral profiles of four Balkan indigenous apple cultivars monitored at two different maturity stages. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 35: 101-111.
Shekhar, S., Mishra, D., Buragohain, A.K., Chakraborty, S. and Chakraborty, N., 2015. Comparative analysis of phytochemicals and nutrient availability in two contrasting cultivars of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.). Food Chemistry 173: 957-965.
Singleton, V.L. and Rossi, J.A., 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 16: 144-158.
Singh, V., Guizani, N., Essa, M.M., Hakkim, F.L. and Rahman, M.S., 2012. Comparative analysis of total phenolics, flavonoid content and antioxidant profile of different date varieties (Phoenix dactyliferaL.) from Sultanate of Oman. International Food Research Journal 19: 1063-1070.
Smirnoff, N. and Cumbes, Q.J., 1989. Hyroxyl radical scavenging activity of compatible solutes. Phytochemistry 28: 1057-1060.
Sun, T., Tang, J. and Powers, J.R., 2007a. Antioxidant activity and quality of asparagus affected by microwave-circulated water combination and conventional sterilization. Food Chemistry 100: 813-819.
Sun, T., Powers, J.R. and Tang, J., 2007b. Enzyme-catalyzed change of antioxidants content and antioxidant activity of asparagus juice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55: 56-60.
Sun, T., Powers, J. and Tang, J., 2007c. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of asparagus, broccoli and their juices. Food Chemistry 105: 101-106.
Tsushida, T., Suzuki, M. and Kurogi, M., 1994. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of vegetable extracts and determination of some active compounds. Journal of the Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology-Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi 41: 611-618.
Van Soest, P.J., 1963. Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. A rapid method for the determination of fiber and lignin. Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists 46: 829-835.
Vicente, A.R., Manganaris, G.A., Sozzi, G.O. and Crisosto, C.H., 2009. Nutritional quality of fruits and vegetables. In: Florkowsi, W.J., Shewfelt, R.L., Bueckner, B. and Prussia, S.E. (eds.) Postharvest handling. A system approach, 2nd edition. Academic Press Inc., San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 57-106.
Wang, L., Wu, J., Wang, H., Li, S., Zheng, X., Du, H., Xu, Y. and Wang, L., 2015. Composition of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in the leaves of blueberry cultivars. Journal of Functional Foods 16: 295-304.
Wang, M., Tadmor, Y., Wu, Q.L., Chin, C.K., Garrison, S.A. and Simon, J.E., 2003. Quantification of protodioscin and rutin in asparagus shoots by LC/MS and HPLC methods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51: 6132-6136.
Zheng, H., Fang, S., Lou, H., Chen, Y., Jiang, L. and Lu, H., 2011. Neural network prediction of ascorbic acid degradation in green asparagus during thermal treatments.Expert Systems with Applications 38(5): 5591-5602.