Main Article Content
Turkey, wheat landraces, mineral contents, biplot, correlations, breeding
The study aimed to examine and interpret variability of some mineral contents in wheat genotypes throughout growing seasons. A collection of 86 landraces originated from different provinces in Turkey and 14 registered cultivars were studied during two successive years for variability of some mineral contents (Fe, Zn, B, K, Mn, Mo, Cu, Mg and Ca) in grain. Both correlation coefficients and genotype trait (GT)-biplot analysis were used to examine and interpret variability of mineral contents in wheat genotypes throughout growing seasons. According to the correlation analysis, there were positive relationships among Fe and Zn, Mn, Mg and Cu contents. Furthermore, the relationship between the concentrations of the elements indicated that the correlation coefficients were consistent with the results of the GT-biplot analyses. The highest variations were obtained from Fe and Zn concentrations along with the longest vectors from GT-biplot origin. Fe, Zn and Mn contents were the ideal traits, according to mineral contents scaling GT-biplot. These traits were recorded as the best representative of the overall mineral contents along the most powerful to discriminate genotypes. Pure line 22 was superior with respect to Fe, Zn and B composition, while pure line 47 was superior regarding Ca contents. Comparison between pure lines and modern cultivars led to the conclusion that Fe, Zn and Mn content of many pure lines were usually higher than those of modern cultivars. Moreover, mean grain concentrations of Fe, Zn and Mn in pure lines from landraces were significantly higher than all cultivars, 9.25, 14.82 and 6.75%, respectively. Therefore, some pure lines could be recommended to use as genetic material to enhance the genetic basis of bread wheat breeding programmes all over the world
Akcura, M., 2011. The relationships of some traits in Turkish winter bread wheat landraces. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 35: 115-125.
Bird, M., 1999. Ever nearer the past. Time, December: 06. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/z9wgqqk
Cakmak, I., Ozkan, H., Braun, H.J., Welch, R.M. and Romheld, V., 2000. Zinc and iron concentrations in seeds of wild, primitive, and modern wheats. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 21: 401-403.
Fan, M.S., Zhao, F.J., Fairweather-Tait, S.J., Poulton, P.R., Dunham, S.J. and McGrath, S.P., 2008. Evidence of decreasing mineral density in wheat grain over the last 160 years. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 22: 315-324.
Garvin, D.F., Welch, R.M. and Finley, J.W., 2006. Historical shifts in the seed mineral micronutrient concentration of US hard red winter wheat germplasm. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86: 2213-2220.
Gokgol, M., 1939. Turkish wheats, Vol. 2. Yesilkoy seed breeding institute publications [in Turkish]. No. 14, Tan Press, Istanbul, Turkey, 955 pp.
Graham, R., Senadhira, D., Beebe, S., Iglesias, C. and Monasterio, I., 1999. Breeding for micronutrient density in edible portions of staple food crops: conventional approaches. Field Crops Research 60: 57-80.
Hambridge, K.M., 2000. Human zinc deficiency. Journal of Nutrition 130: 1344-1349.
Harmankaya, M., Özcan, M.M. and Gezgin, S., 2012. Variation of heavy metal and micro and macro element concentrations of bread and durum wheats and their relationship in grain of Turkish wheat cultivars. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184: 5511-5521.
Henderson, L., Irving, K., Gregory, J., Bates, C.J., Prentice, A., Perks, J., Swan, G. and Farron, M., 2003. The national diet and nutrition survey: adults aged 19 to 64 years. Stationery Office (HMSO), London, UK.
Hussain, S., Maqsood, M.A. and Miller, LV., 2011. Bioavailable zinc in grains of bread wheat varieties of Pakistan. Cereal Research Communications 40: 62-73.
Isaac, R.A. and Kerber, J.D., 1971. Atomic absorption and flame photometry: techniques and uses in soil, plant, and water analysis. In: Walsh, L.M. (ed.) Instrumental methods for analysis of soils and plant tissue. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA, pp. 18-37.
Jones, J.R.J. and Case, V.W., 1990. Sampling, handling, and analyzing plant tissue samples. In: Westerman, R.L. (ed.) Soil testing and plant analysis. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, USA, pp. 389-428.
Karagoz, A. and Zencirci, N., 2005. Variation in wheat (Triticum spp.) landraces from different altitudes of three regions of Turkey. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 52: 775-785.
Kaya, Y., Akcura, M. and Taner, S., 2006. GGE-biplot analysis of multi-environment yield trials in bread wheat. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 30: 325-337.
Köksel, H. and Cetiner, B., 2015. Future of grain science series: grain science and industry in Turkey: past, present, and future. Cereal Foods World 60: 90-96.
Monasterio, J.I., Palacios-Rojas, N., Meng, E., Pixley, K., Trethowan, R. and Pena, R.J., 2007. Enhancing the mineral and vitamin content of wheat and maize through plant breeding. Journal of Cereal Science 46: 293-307.
Morris, C.E. and Sands, D.C., 2006. The breeder’s dilemma yield or nutrition. Nature 24: 1078-1080.
Murphy, K.M., Reeves, P.G. and Jones, S.S., 2008. Relationship between yield and mineral nutrient concentrations in historical and modern spring wheat cultivars. Euphytica 163: 381-390.
Stoltzfus, R.J. and Dreyfuss, M.L., 1998. Guidelines for the use of iron supplements to prevent and treat iron deficiency anemia. ILSI Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Welch, R.M. and Graham, R.D., 1999. A new paradigm for world agriculture: meeting human needs: productive, sustainable, nutritious. Field Crops Research 60: 1-10.
Yan, W. and Kang, M.S., 2003. GGE biplot analysis: a graphical tool for breeders, geneticists, and agronomists. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 288 pp.
Zhao, F.J., Su, Y.H., Dunham, S.J., Rakszegi, M., Bedo, Z., McGrath, S.P. and Shewry, P.R., 2009. Variation in mineral micronutrient concentrations in grain of wheat lines of diverse origin. Journal of Cereal Science 49: 290-295.