Main Article Content
immature wheat, flour blend, rheology, leavened bread, unleavened bread
In this study, Bezostaya-1, Gerek-79 and K?z?ltan-98 wheat cultivars were harvested at two different maturity stages. Flour of immature wheat were used for preparation of flour blends as whole wheat flour of immature wheat (WFIW) or refined white flour of immature wheat (RFIW). For flour blend preparation, WFIW replaced commercial wholewheat flour at 0, 10, 20 and 30% and RFIW replaced commercial refined white flour at 0, 5, 10 and 15% ratios. These flour blends were used for preparation of leavened and unleavened bread. As well as some qualitative properties of wheat and flour blends, some physical properties of leavened bread (weight, volume, specific volume, hardness and crust colour) and unleavened bread (diameter, thickness, spread ratio and crust colour) were determined. Thousand kernel weight, test weight and gluten index values of wheat increased with the progress of the maturity stage. Immature wheat flour decreased water absorption, development time and dough stability in WFIW blends, and decreased only dough stability in RFIW blends. Leavened bread produced with flour blends of Bezostaya-1 were found superior in terms of physical bread properties. The adverse effect of WFIW flour on volume, specific volume, symmetry and hardness of bread was obtained at 30% replacement level. For unleavened bread, utilisation of WFIW or RFIW blends in dough formulation improved diameter and spread ratio of flat bread. Considering some of the physical properties of leavened and unleavened bread, it can be concluded that optimum usage ratio of WFIW and RFIW were 20 and 10%, respectively.
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