Main Article Content
concord grape, extrusion, pasting properties, thermal properties
Addition of bioactive ingredients into cereal products is reported to have some detrimental effects on the product quality. However, sometimes those negative effects are known to be compensated by protein sources. In this study, the single and combined effects of both Concord grape extract powder (CGEP) and wheat protein isolate (WPI) on quality parameters of hard wheat flour extrudates were investigated. Beside the physical quality and colour parameters of extrudates, their pasting and thermal properties were also evaluated at three different die temperatures. Results revealed that CGEP substitution (7%), even with WPI (6.5 and 13%), was not so much effective on quality of extrudates extruded at 90 and 120 °C die temperatures. The only parameter effective on quality was the die temperature; especially at 150 °C, differences between formulations were more distinct for (diametric expansion, bulk density) when compared to lower die temperatures (90 and 120 °C). However, pasting properties were detrimentally affected by the single addition of CGEP (about 55.4% loss in final viscosity) with respect to single WPI substitution (about 66.7% loss in final viscosity). Presence of both CGEP and WPI made the pastes even weaker (34.1 to 61.1% decrease in peak viscosity), on the other hand, decreased the extent of delay (in gelatinisation (about 2 to 9 °C) provided by the sole use of CGEP. Besides no distinct effect on retrogradation was observed neither by CGEP nor with WPI. Therefore, in extrudates, CGEP substitution and related decrease in protein content did not exert a significant quality loss and even by increasing the protein level no improvement in quality parameters was obtained.
Altan, A., McCarthy, K.L. and Maskan, M., 2008. Twin-screw extrusion of barley–grape pomace blends: extrudate characteristics and determination of optimum processing conditions. Journal of Food Engineering 89: 24-32.
Altan, A., McCarthy, K.L. and Maskan, M., 2009. Effect of extrusion cooking on functional properties and in vitro starch digestibility of barley-based extrudates from fruit and vegetable by-products. Journal of Food Science74: E77-86.
Alvarez-Martinez, L., Kondury, K.P. and Harper, J.M., 1988. A general model for expansion of extruded products. Journal of Food Science 53: 609-615.
Anderson, R.A., Conway, H.F., Pfeifer, V.F. and Griffin, E.L., 1969. Gelatinization of corn grits by roll and extrusion cooking. Cereal Science Today14: 4-12.
Bhattacharya, S., 2012. Raw materials for extrusion of foods. In: Maskan, M. and Altan, A. (eds.) Advances in food extrusion technology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 69-86.
Beta, T. and Corke, H., 2004. Effect of ferulic acid and catechin on sorghum and maize starch pasting properties. Cereal Chemistry 81: 418-422.
Bisharat, G.I., Oikonomopoulou, V.P., Panagiotou, N.M., Krokida, M.K. and Maroulis, Z.B., 2013. Effect of extrusion conditions on the structural properties of corn extrudates enriched with dehydrated vegetables. Food Research International 53: 1-14.
Blazek, J. and Copeland, L. 2008. Pasting and swelling properties of wheat flour and starch in relation to amylose content. Carbohydrate Polymers 71: 380-387.
Bouvier, J.M., 2001. Breakfast cereals In: Guy, R. (ed.). Extrusion cooking technologies and applications. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, pp. 133-160.
Brennan, C., Brennan, M., Derbyshire, E. and Tiwari, B.K., 2011. Effects of extrusion on the polyphenols, vitamins and antioxidant activity of foods. Trends in Food Science and Technology 22: 570-575.
Camire, M.E., Dougherty, M.P. and Briggs, J.L., 2007. Functionality of fruit powders in extruded corn breakfast cereals. Food Chemistry 101: 765-770.
Chang, Y.H. and Ng, P.K.W., 2011. Effects of extrusion process variables on quality properties of wheat-ginseng extrudates. International Journal of Food Properties 14: 914-925.
Chanvrier, H., Appelqvist, I.A.M., Bird, A.R., Gilbert, E., Htoon, A., Li, Z., Lillford, P.J., Lopez-Rubio, A., Morell, M.K. and Topping, D.L., 2007. Processing of novel elevated amylose wheats: functional properties and starch digestibility of extruded products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55: 10248-10257.
Chaunier, L., Della Valle, G. and Lourdin, D. 2007. Relationships between texture, mechanical properties and structure of cornflakes. Food Research International40: 493-503.
Devi, N.L., Shobha, S., Tang, X., Shaur, S.A., Dogan, H. and Alavi, S., 2013. Development of protein-rich sorghum-based expanded snacks using extrusion technology. International Journal of Food Properties 16: 263-276.
Ding, Q., Ainsworth, P., Plunkett, A., Tucker, G. and Marson, H., 2006. The effect of extrusion conditions on the functional and physical properties of wheat-based expanded snacks. Journal of Food Engineering 73: 142-148.
Eliasson A.C., 1983. Differential scanning calorimetry studies on wheat starch-gluten mixtures. I. Effect of gluten on the gelatinization of wheat starch. Journal of Cereal Science 1: 199-205.
Erdogdu, N., Czuchajowska, Z. and Pomeranz, Y., 1995. Wheat flour and defatted milk fractions characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. II. DSC of interaction products. Cereal Chemistry 72: 76-79.
Faubion, J.M. and Hoseney, R.C., 1982. High-temperature-short-time extrusion cooking of wheat starch and flour. II. Effect of protein and lipid on extrudate properties. Cereal Chemistry 59: 533-537.
Fischer, T., 2004. Effect of extrusion cooking on protein modification in wheat flour. European Food Research and Technology 218: 128-132.
Fletcher, S.I., Richmond, P. and Smith, A.C., 1985. An experimental study of twin-screw extrusion cooking of maize grits. Journal of Food Engineering 4: 291-312.
Guerrero, P., Beatty, E., Kerry, J.P. and Caba, K., 2012. Extrusion of soy protein with gelatin and sugars at low moisture content. Journal of Food Engineering 110: 53-59.
Hu, L., Hsieh, F. and Huff, H.E., 1993. Corn meal extrusion with emulsifier and soybean fibre. LWT-Food Science and Technology 26: 544-551.
Jane, J., Chen, Y.Y., Lee, L.F., McPherson, A.E., Wong, K.S., Radosavljevic, M. and Kasemsuwan, T., 1999. Effects of amylopectin branch chain length and amylose content on the gelatinization and pasting properties of starch. Cereal Chemistry 76: 629-637.
Joshi, M., Aldred, P., Panozzo, J.F., Kasapis, S. and Adhikari, B., 2014. Rheological and microstructural characteristics of lentil starch – lentil protein composite pastes and gels. Food Hydrocolloids 35: 226-237.
Karkle, E.L., Keller, L., Dogan, H. and Alavi, S., 2012. Matrix transformation in fiber-added extruded products: impact of different hydration regimens on texture, microstructure and digestibility. Journal of Food Engineering 108: 171-182.
Kim, J.H., Tanhehco, E.J. and Ng, P.K.W., 2006. Effect of extrusion conditions on resistant starch formation from pastry wheat flour. Food Chemistry 99: 718-723.
Knorr, D., Heinz, V. and Buckow, R., 2006. High pressure application for food biopolymers. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Proteins and Proteomics 1764: 619-631.
Leon, A., Rosell, C.M. and Benedito de Barber, C., 2003. A differential scanning calorimetry study of wheat proteins. European Food Research and Technology217: 13-16.
Linko, P., Colonna, P. and Mercier, C., 1981. HTST extrusion of cereals based materials. In: Pomeranz, Y. (ed). Advances in cereal science and technology. AACC, St Paul, MN, USA, 145-235 pp.
Mohamed, A.A. and Rayas-Duarte, P., 2003. The effect of mixing and wheat protein/gluten on the gelatinization of wheat starch. Food Chemistry 81: 533-545.
Núñez, M., Sandoval, A.J., Müller, A.J., Valle, G.D. and Lourdin, D., 2009. In thermal characterization and phase behavior of a ready-to-eat breakfast cereal formulation and its starchy components. Food Biophysics 4: 291-303.
Ottenhof, M.A. and Farhat, I.A., 2004. The effect of gluten on the retrogradation of wheat starch. Journal of Cerearl Science 40: 269-274.
Potter, R., Stojceska, V. and Plunkett, A., 2013. The use of fruit powders in extruded snacks suitable for Children’s diets. LWT-Food Science and Technology 51:537-544.
Ravindran, G., Carr, A. and Hardacre, A. 2011. A comparative study of the effects of three galactomannans on the functionality of extruded pea-rice blends. Food Chemistry 124: 1620-1626.
Sarawong, C., Schoenlechner R., Sekiguchi, K., Berghofer, E. and Ng, P.K.W., 2014. Effect of extrusion cooking on the physicochemical properties, resistant starch, phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of green banana flour. Food Chemistry 143: 33-39.
Schaich, K.M. and Rebello, C.A., 1999. Extrusion chemistry of wheat flour proteins: I. Free radical formation. Cereal Chemistry 76: 748-755.
Stojceska, V., Ainsworth, P., Plunkett, A. and ?bano?lu, ?., 2009. The effect of extrusion cooking using different water feed rates on the quality of ready-to-eat snacks made from food by-products. Food Chemistry 114: 226-232.
Tacer-Caba, Z., Nilufer-Erdil, D., Boyacioglu, M.H. and Ng, P.K.W., 2014. Evaluating the effects of amylose and Concord grape extract powder substitution on physicochemical properties of wheat flour extrudates produced at different temperatures. Food Chemistry 157: 476-484.
White, B.L., Howard, L.R. and Prior, R.L., 2010. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of extruded cranberry pomace. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 58: 4037-4042.
Wu, Y., Chen, Z., Li, X. and Li, M., 2009. Effect of tea polyphenols on the retrogradation of rice starch. Food Research International 42: 221-225.
Ya?c?, S. and Gö?ü?, F., 2008. Response surface methodology for evaluation of physical and functional properties of extruded snack foods developed from food-by-products. Journal of Food Engineering 86: 122-132.
Ya?c?, S. and Gö?ü?, F., 2009. Effect of incorporation of various food by-products on some nutritional properties of rice-based extruded foods. Food Science and Technology International 15: 571-581.
Zaidul, I.S.M., Yamauchi, H., Kim, S., Hashimoto, N. and Noda, T., 2007. RVA study of mixtures of wheat flour and potato starches with different phosphorus contents. Food Chemistry 102: 1105-1111.
Zhu, F., Cai, Y.Z., Sun, M. and Corke, H., 2009. Effect of phytochemical extracts on the pasting, thermal, and gelling properties of wheat starch. Food Chemistry 112: 919-923.
Zhu, L., Shukri, R., Mesa-Stonestreet, N.J., Alavi, S., Dogan, H. and Shi, Y., 2010. Mechanical and microstructural properties of soy protein-high amylose corn starch extrudates in relation to physiochemical changes of starch during extrusion. Journal of Food Engineering 100: 232-238.