Effect of sowing methods and seed rates on wheat yield and water productivity

Main Article Content

J.N. Chauhdary
U.D. Khan
S.H.H. Shah
M.A. Shahid
M. Arsalan


benefit cost ratio, grain yield, seed rate, sowing method, water productivity


Wheat yield and water productivity can be improved by sowing on beds with balanced seed rate. The present study was conducted during rabi seasons of 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 at the experimental area of Water Management Research Centre, PARS, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, to investigate three seed rates (100, 130, and 160 kg/ha) and three sowing methods (broadcasting, drill sowing, bed planting) for better yield and water productivity of wheat. It was concluded that wheat sowing under bed planting showed better results with highest plant height (92.358 cm), numbers of tillers (294.17), numbers of grains per spike (42.5), 1000 grain weight (35.338 g), grain yield (3941.8 kg/ ha) and water productivity (2.3028 kg/m3), while these parameters were observed as the lowest under broadcasting among all treatments. Moreover, wheat on beds produced 13% more yield and saved 35% water in comparison to that under broadcasting. The results regarding seed rate revealed that the highest grain yield (4,117.1 kg/ha), water productivity (1.8361 kg/m3) and numbers of tillers (297.94), but lowest numbers of grains per spike (38.833) and 1000 grain weight (34.256 g) were obtained with seed rate of 160 kg/ha. Seed rate of 100 kg/ha produced highest numbers of grains per spike (42.167) and 1000 grain weight (35.336 g) but lowest numbers of tillers (264.17), grain yield (3,360.1 kg/ha) and water productivity (1.5272 kg/m3). The economic analysis also revealed the benefits of bed planting over the other treatments with highest benefit cost ratio as 2.74 with 160 kg/ha seed rate. It is, therefore, recommended that wheat should be sown with seed rate of 160 kg/ha under bed planting for economically better yield and water productivity in the semi-arid area of Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Abstract 127 | PDF Downloads 208


Ashraf, M., 2014. Promising land and water management practices: a manual. International Center For Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), Country Office Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan, 68 pp.
Carver, M.F.F., 2005. The influence of different establishment methods on performance of early drilled winter wheat. HGCA-Project Report: 375. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/offg2bu.
Fahong, W., Xuquing, W. and Sayre, K.D., 2003. Comparison study on two different planting methods for winter wheat in China. Bed planting course, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico, Mexico.
Fenech, J. and Papy, F., 1977. Conditions needed for successful emergence under a Mediterranean climate. The case of non-irrigated cereal crops in N. Morocco. Annals of Agricultural Research 78: 599-635.
Hobbs, P.R. and Gupta, R.K., 2004. Rice-wheat cropping systems in the Indo-Gangetic plains. In: Kijne, J.W., Barker, R. and Molden, D. (eds.) Water productivity in agriculture: limits and opportunities for improvement. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 239-253.
Hobbs, P.R., Sayre, K.D. and Monasterio, J.I.O., 1998. Increasing wheat yields sustainability through agronomic means. NRG paper 98-01. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico, Mexico, 22 pp.
Hobbs, P.R., Sing, Y., Giri, G.S., Lauren, J.G. and Duxbury, J.M., 2000. Direct seeding and reduced tillage option in rice-wheat systems of the Indo-Gangetic plains of South Asia. Paper presented at IRRI workshop, 25-28 January, 2000, Bangkok, Thailand. Available at: http://tinyurl.com/pmeoyz9.
Husnain, M., Bukhsh, M.A.H.A., Iqbal, J., Khaliq, T. and Zamir, S., 2011. Agro-economic response of two wheat varieties under different tillage practices. Crop & Environment 2: 1-7.
Iqbal, N., Akbar, N., Ali, M., Sattar, M. and Ali, L., 2010. Effect of seed rate and row spacing on yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Journal of Agricultural Research 48: 151-156.
Kipps, M.S., 1970. Production of field crops (6th Ed.). McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, NY, USA.
Kraft, I. and Spiss, L., 1988. Relationship between stand density and yield components in wheat. Zbornik Biotechniske Fakultete Universe Advent Kardel 5: 27-33.
Krezel, R. and Sobkowicz, P., 1996. The effect of sowing rates and methods on winter triticale grown on light soil. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych. Seria A Produkeja Roslinna 111: 69-78.
Korres, N.E. and Williams, R.J.F., 2002. Effect of winter wheat cultivars and seed rate on the biological characteristics of naturally occurring weed flora. Weed Research 42: 417-428.
Malik, A.U., Ahmad, M., Bukhsh, H.A. and Hussain, I., 2009. Effect of seed rates sown on different dates on wheat under agro-ecological conditions of Dera Ghazi Khan. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences19: 126-129.
Peries, R., Chris, B. and Bruce, W., 2001. Raised bed cropping leading to improved root proliferation in heavy duplex soils prone to water logging. In: Proceedings of the 6th symposium of The International Society of Root Research, November 2001, Nagouya, Japan.
Sayre, K.D. and Ramos, O.H.M., 1997. Applications of raised beds planting systems to wheat. Wheat special report No. 31. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico, Mexico.
Shaalan, M.I., Chaudhary, M.S. and Sorour, F.A.,1977. The effect of tillage and planting methods on growth, weed population and yield of semi-dwarf wheat (Triricum aestivum L.). Libyan Journal of Agriculture 6: 55-67.
Singh, G., Singh, O.P., Yadav, R.A., Singh, R.S. and Singh, B.B., 1994. Effect of seeding methods, seed rates and fertility levels on yield and economics of late sown wheat after rice in flood prone area. Annals of Agricultural Research 15: 448-451.
Singh, R.A. and Singh, R.G., 1992. Response of various methods on yield of wheat HUW 234. Agriculture Science, Digest Kernal 12: 217-218.
Soomro, U.A., Rahman, M.U., Odhano, E.A., Gul, S. and Tareen, A.Q., 2009. Effects of sowing method and seed rate on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum). World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5: 159-162.
Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H. and Dickey, D.A., 1997. Principles and procedures of statistics. A biometrical approach (3rd Ed.). McGraw Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, NY, USA, pp. 400-428.