Main Article Content
durum wheat, γ-gliadin 45, LMW-2 type glutenins, pasta quality, SSR
The quality of durum wheat (Triticum durum) is defined as its degree of suitability for pasta production. In order to meet the demand of pasta industry for high quality raw material, existing durum varieties should be first improved in terms of quality-associated genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In this study, important QTLs (Gli-B1 locus encoding ?-gliadin 45 protein and Glu-B3 locus encoding LMW-2 type glutenins) that affect cooking quality of pasta were transferred to two durum wheat cultivars (Salihli-92 and K?z?ltan-91) through marker-assisted selection (MAS) and backcross breeding. A Canadian durum wheat cultivar with a high quality, Kyle, was used as the donor parent. Each F1 and backcross (BC) plants were backcrossed four times to the recurrent parents, and backcrosses carrying the targeted QTLs were selected by linked molecular markers, i.e. DNA markers, acidic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Quality analyses were performed on the kernels and semolinas of inbred backcross lines (BC4F4) and of parental cultivars to assess the effects of the transferred QTLs. Both advanced breeding lines (ABLs) had higher protein contents (14.9 and 15.8%) than their recurrent parents (14.0-14.8%). Also, SDS-sedimentation volumes (32.7 and 28.2 ml) of the ABLs were significantly higher (P<0.05) than their parents. It was found that the transfer of Gli-B1 locus containing ?-gliadin 45 and Glu-B3 locus containing LMW-2 type glutenins to the advanced breeding lines led to increases in their pasta-quality associated properties.
American Association of Cereal Chemists International (AACCI), 2000. AACCI approved methods, 10th edition. AACCI International, St. Paul, MN, USA.
Arzani, A. and Mirodjagh, S.S., 1999. Response of durum wheat cultivars to immature embryo culture, callus induction and in vitro salt stress. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 58: 67-72.
Baenziger, P.S. and DePauw, R.M., 2009. Wheat breeding: procedures and strategies. In: Carver, B.F. (ed.) Wheat science and trade. Wiley-Blackwell Publishers, Hoboken, NJ, USA, pp. 273-308.
Borrelli, G.M., Troccoli, A., DiFonzo, N. and Fares, C., 1999. Durum wheat lipoxygenase activity and other parameters that affect pasta color. Cereal Chemistry 76: 335-340.
Bushuk, W., 1998. Wheat breeding for end-product use. Euphytica 100: 137-145.
Clarke, J.M., Marchylo, B.A., Kovacs, M.I.P., Noll, J.S., McCaig, T.N. and Howes, N.K., 1998. Breeding durum wheat for pasta quality in Canada. In: Braun, H.J. (ed.) Wheat: prospects for global improvement. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, NY, USA, pp. 229-236.
Cubadda, R.E., Carcea, M., Marconi, E. and Trivisonno, M.C., 2007. Influence of gluten proteins and drying temperature on the cooking quality of durum wheat pasta. Cereal Chemistry 84: 48-55. https://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-84-1-0048
D’Ovidio, R. and Porceddu, E., 1996. PCR-based assay for detecting 1B-genes for low molecular weight glutenin subunits related to gluten quality properties in durum wheat. Plant Breeding 115: 413-415.
D’Ovidio, R., Margiotta, B., Porceddu, E. and Lafiandra, D., 1992. Lack of expression of the gamma-45 gliadin gene in a durum wheat genotype. Journal of Cereal Science 16: 173-181.
Elgün, A., Ertugay, Z., Certel, M. and Kotanc?lar, G., 2002. Analytical quality control in cereals and products – laboratory application guide. Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey.
Gianibelli, M.C., Echaide, M., Larroque, O.R., Carrillo, J.M. and Dubcovsky, J., 2002. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Glu-1 loci in Argentinean wheat cultivars. Euphytica 128: 61-73.
Gregova, E., Medvecká, E., Jómová, K. and Šliková, S., 2012. Characterization of durum wheat (Triticum durum desf.) quality from gliadin and glutenin protein composition. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Science 1: 610-615.
Hayden, M.J., Stephenson, P., Logojan, A.M., Khatkar, D., Rogers, C., Elsden, J., Koebner, R.M.D., Snape, J.W. and Sharp, P.J., 2006. Development and genetic mapping of sequence-tagged microsatellites (STMs) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 113: 1271-1281.
International Grains Commission (IGC), 2016. World durum production. Available at: https://tinyurl.com/yahvs4hg
Khan, K., Hamada, A.S. and Patek, J., 1985. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for wheat variety identification: effect of variables on gel properties. Cereal Chemistry 62: 310-313.
Kovacs, M.I.P., Howes, N.K., Leslie, D. and Zawistowski, J., 1995. Effect of two low molecular weight glutenin subunits on durum wheat pasta quality parameters. Cereal Chemistry 72: 85-87.
Marchylo, B.A., Dexter, J.E., Clarke, F.R., Clarke, J.M. and Preston, K.R., 2001. Relationships among bread-making quality, gluten strength, physical dough properties and pasta cooking quality for some Canadian durum wheat genotypes. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 81: 611-620.
Porceddu, E., Turchetta, T., Masci, S., D’Ovidio, R., Lafiandra, D., Kasarda, D.D., Impiglia, A. and Nachit, M.M., 1998. Variation in endosperm protein composition and technological quality properties in durum wheat. Euphytica 100: 197-205.
Sakin, M.A., Sayaslan, A., Düzdemir, O. and Yüksel, F., 2011. Quality characteristics of registered cultivars and advanced lines of durum wheats grown in different ecological regions of Turkey. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 91: 261-271.
Sayaslan, A., Koyuncu, M., Y?ld?r?m, A., Güleç, T., Ates Sönmezo?lu, Ö. and Kandemir, N., 2012. Some quality characteristics of selected durum wheat (Triticum durum) landraces. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 36: 749-756.
Singh, N.K., Shepherd, K.W. and Cornish, G.B., 1991. A simplified SDS-PAGE procedure for separating LMW subunits of glutenin. Journal of Cereal Science 14: 203-208.
Somers, D.J., Isaac, P. and Edwards, K., 2004. A high-density microsatellite consensus map for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 109: 1105-1114.
Sönmezo?lu, Ö.A. and Balkan, A.S., 2014. Molecular and biochemical analysis of durum wheat genotypes to examine carotenoid pigment content and lipoxygenase enzyme activity. Cereal Research Communications 42: 218-228.
Sönmezo?lu, Ö.A., Bozmaz, B., Y?ld?r?m, A., Kandemir, N. and Ayd?n, N., 2012. Genetic characterization of Turkish bread wheat landraces based on microsatellite markers and morphological characters. Turkish Journal of Biology 36: 589-597.
Sönmezo?lu, Ö.A., Y?ld?r?m, A., Güleç, T., Kandemir, N., Sayaslan, A. and Koyuncu, M., 2010. Molecular breeding of Selçuklu-97 durum wheat cultivar for some genes affecting pasta quality. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 4: 1-6.
Troccoli, A., Borrelli, G.M., De Vita, P., Fares, C. and Di Fonzo, N., 2000. Durum wheat quality: a multidisciplinary concept. Journal of Cereal Science 32: 99-113.
Tyagi, S., Mir, R.R., Kaur, H., Chhuneja, P., Ramesh, B., Balyan, H.S. and Gupta, P.K., 2014. Marker-assisted pyramiding of eight QTLs/genes for seven different traits in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Molecular Breeding 34: 167-175.
Vita, P.D., Nicosia, O.L., Nigro, F., Platani, C., Riefolo, C., Fonzo, N.D. and Cattivelli, L., 2007. Breeding progress in morpho-physiological, agronomical and qualitative traits of durum wheat cultivars released in Italy during the 20th century. Europe Journal of Agronomy 26: 39-53.
Von Büren, M., Lüthy, J. and Hübner, P., 2000. A spelt-specific y-gliadin gene: discovery and detection. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 100: 271-279.
Y?ld?r?m, A., Ate? Sönmezo?lu, Ö., Sayaslan, A., Koyuncu, M., Güleç, T. and Kandemir, N., 2013. Marker-assisted breeding of a durum wheat cultivar for gliadin and LMW-glutenin proteins affecting pasta quality. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 37: 527-533.
Yüksel, F., Koyuncu, M. and Sayaslan, A., 2011. Makarnal?k bu?day (Triticum durum) kalitesi [Durum wheat (Triticum durum) quality]. Türk Bilimsel Derlemeler Dergisi 4(2): 25-31.