Physical and mechanical properties of milk thistle seeds

Main Article Content

A.N. Lorestani
R. Gholami
M. Zareie


milk thistle, physical and mechanical properties


Physical and mechanical properties of medicinal plants and agricultural products are important for the design of harvesting and processing equipment. In this paper, the physical and mechanical properties of milk thistle were investigated. The physical properties that were measured included dimensions (big, medium and small diameters), aspect ratio, geometric mean diameter, arithmetic means diameter, projected area, surface area, sphericity, moisture, density and porosity. Their averages were found to be 6.52 mm, 3.13 mm, 1.81 mm, 48.15%, 3.33 mm, 3.82 mm, 13.65 mm2, 88.04 mm2, 51%, 6.87%, 0.77 g/cm3 and 87.5%, respectively. Mechanical properties such as modulus of elasticity, maximum force that the fruit can support, work associated with this force, deformation under compression loading and hardness were investigated and their average values were found to be 0.49 GPa, 136.41 N, 64.39, 0.77 mm and 215.96 N/mm, respectively. The coefficient of static friction of samples was measured on three surfaces (glass, galvanised metal and wood), and their average vales were found to be 0.38, 0.37, 0.37, respectively.

Abstract 54 | PDF Downloads 35


Altuntas, E. and Yildiz, M., 2007. Effect of moisture content on some physical and mechanical properties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) grains. Journal of Food Engineering 78: 174-183.
Bahnasawy, A.H., El-Haddad, Z.A., El-Ansary, M.Y. and Sorour, H.M., 2004. Physical and mechanical properties of some Egyptian onion cultivars. Journal of Food Engineering 62: 255-261.
Bal, S. and Mishra, H.N., 1988. Engineering properties of soybean. In: Ali, N., Gandhi, A.P. and Ojha, T.P (eds.). Proceedings of the National Seminar on Soybean Processing and Utilization in India. November 22-23, 1986. Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Bhopal, India, pp. 146-165.
Bhattacharya, S., 2011. Phytotherapeutic properties of milk thistle seeds: an overview. Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education and Research 1: 69-79.
Calisir, S., Haciseferoglu, H., Ozcan, M. and Arslan, D., 2005. Some nutritional and technological properties of wild plum (Prunus spp.) fruits in Turkey. Journal of Food Engineering 66: 233-237.
Dutta, S.K., Nema, V.K. and Bhardwaj, R.K., 1988. Physical properties of gram. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 39: 259-268.
Fintelmann V., 1991. Modern phytotherapy and its uses in gastrointestinal conditions. Planta Medica 57: S48-S52.
Flora, K., Hahn, M., Rosen, H. and Benner, K., 1998. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) for the therapy of liver disease. American Journal of Gastroenterology 93: 139-43.
Gholami, R., Lorestani, A.N., Jaliliantabar, F., 2012. Determination of physical and mechanical properties of zucchini (summer squash). Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal 14: 1.
Goyal, R.K., Kingsly, A.R.P., Kumar, P. and Walia, H., 2007. Physical and mechanical properties of aonla fruits. Journal of Food Engineering 82: 595-599.
Guner, M., Dursun, E. and Dursun, I.G., 2003. Mechanical behaviour of hazelnut under compression loading. Biosystems Engineering 85: 485-491.
Jalilian, F., Lorestani, A.N., Gholami, R., Behzadi, A. and Fereidoni, M., 2011. Physical and echanical properties of oak (Quercus persica) fruits. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal 13: 4.
Karaj, S. and Muller, J., 2010. Determination of physical, mechanical and chemical properties of seeds and kernels of Jatropha curcas L. Industrial Crops and Products 32: 129-138.
Kilickan, A. and Gunner, M., 2008. Physical properties and mechanical behavior of olive fruits (Olea europaea L.) under compression loading. Journal of Food Engineering 87: 222-228.
Legrand, A., Leuliet, J.C., Duquesne, S., Kesteloot, R., Winterton, P. and Fillaudeau, L., 2007. Physical, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of cooked red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) for continuous ohmic heating process. Journal of Food Engineering 81: 447-458.
Lorestani, A.N. and Ghari, M., 2012. Mass modeling of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) with some physical characteristics. Scientia Horticulturae 133: 6-9.
Lorestani, A.N., Jaliliantabar, F. and Golami, R., 2012. Physical and mechanical properties of castor seed. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods 4: e29-e32.
Lorestani, A.N., Rabani, R.H. and Khazaei, Y., 2012. Design and construction of an automatic coefficient of friction measuring device. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal 14: 120-124.
Lorestani, A.N. and Tabatabaeefar, A., 2006. Modeling the mass of kiwi fruit by geometrical attributes. International Agrophysics 20: 135-139.
Mohsenin, N.N., 1986. Physical properties of plant and animal materials. Gordon and Breach, New York, NY, USA.
Olajide, J.D. and Ade-Omowaye, B.I.O., 1999. Some physical properties of locust bean seed. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 74: 213-215.
Owolarafe, O.K. and Shotonde, H.O., 2004. Some physical properties of fresh okro fruit. Journal of Food Engineering 63: 299-302.
Pallottino, F., Costa, C., Menesatti, P. and Moresi, M., 2011. Assessment of the mechanical properties of Tarocco orange fruit under parallel plate compression. Journal of Food Engineering 103: 308-316.
Suchy, P. Jr., Strakova, E., Kummer, V., Herzig, I., Pisarikova, V., Blechova, R., Maskova, J., 2008. Hepatoprotective effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seed cakes during the chicken broiler fattening. Acta Veterinaria Brno 77: 31-38.