Main Article Content
4-hexylresorcinol, mathematical determination, residue level, shrimp
Shrimp is a major source of animal protein and is of great economic importance in world markets. The occurrence of black spot in shrimp after harvesting is a major problem for the aquaculture and fisheries industries. 4-hexylresorcinol has recently been approved by the European Union as an alternative chemical for the prevention of black spot in shrimp. However, high residual levels of 4-hexylresorcinol have important negative effects on humans. The correct mathematical design of 4-hexylresorcinol residue analyses should ensure the cost-effective operation of these industries, their environmental sensitivity, and safe food management practices. The mathematical determination of 4-hexylresorcinol residues will circumvent the high cost of high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses, ensuring high shrimp quality and adherence to food safety standards.
European Commission (EC), 1995. European Parliament and Council Directive no. 95/2/EC of 20 February 1995 on food additives other than colours and sweeteners. Official Journal of the European Commission L61: 1-53.
European Commission (EC), 2003a. Directive 2003/89/EC of the European parliament and of the council of 10 November 2003 amending Directive 2000/13/EC as regards indication of the ingredients present in foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union L308: 15-18.
European Commission (EC), 1989. Council Directive of 21 December 1988 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning food additives authorized for use in foodstuffs intended for human consumption (89/107/EEC). Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sfp/addit_flavor/flav07_en.pdf.
European Commission (EC), 2003b. Opinion of the scientific committee on food on 4-hexylresorcinol. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out170_en.pdf.
European Commission (EC), 2008. Regulation (EC) no. 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the council of 16 December 2008 on food additives. Official Journal of the European Union L354: 16-33.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2011. FishStatPlus – universal software for fishery statistical time series. FAO, Rome, Italy. Available at; http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/software/fishstat/en.
Food and Drug Regulations, 1998. Regulations amending the food and drug regulations (1078). Food and Drug Regulations Ottawa, ON, Canada. Available at: http://publications.gc.ca/gazette/archives/p2/1998/1998-09-30/pdf/g2-13220.pdf.
Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ), 2013. FSANZ standard 1.3.1, food additives. FSANZ, Canberra, Australia. Available at: http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Series/F2008B00614.
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), 1995. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. WHO Technical Report Series 859: 1-53.
Jonker, M.K. and Dekker, P.C., 2000. Determination of 4-hexylresorcinol in shrimp by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Journal of AOAC International 83: 241-244.
Lebesi, D., Dimakou, C., Alldrick, A.J. and Oreopoulou, V., 2010. Rapid test methods: a versatile tool to assist food-safety management. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods 2: 173-181.
Mendes, R., Pestana, J. and Pestana, C., 2006. Changes in 4-hexylresorcinol residues during processing of deepwater pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris). European Food Research and Technology 223: 509-515.
Miget, R., 2010. Shellfish handling practices shrimp and molluscs. SRAC Publication 4902: 1-6. Available at: https://srac.tamu.edu/index.cfm/event/getFactSheet/whichfactsheet/222.
Ministry of Public Health of the People’s Republic of China, 1996. Food additives hygiene standard (GB 2760-1996). Ministry of Public Health of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing, China.
National Toxicology Program, 1988. NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 4-hexylresorcinol (CAS No. 136-77-6) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies). National Toxicology Program technical report series 330: 1-166.
Pennycook, F.R., Diamand E.M., Watterson, A. and Howard, C.V., 2004. Modeling the dietary pesticide exposures of young children. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 10: 304-309.
Poms, R.E., 2013. MoniQA’s contribution towards a global harmonisation of foodstuff quality and safety assessment and monitoring strategies. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods 5: 3-6.
Pringer, O., 2007. Mathematical modelling of chemical migration from food contact materials. In: Bernes, K.A., Sinclair, C.R. and Watson, D.H. (eds.) Chemical migration and food contact materials. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK; CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 180-201.
Selçuk, A. and Özden, Ö., (in press). A rapid HPLC method for determination of 4-hexylresorcinol residues in shrimp. Journal of FisheriesSciences.com, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3153/jfscom.201417.
Thomson, B, Poms R. and Rose, M., 2012. Incidents and impacts of unwanted chemicals in food and feeds. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods 4: 77-92.
Veraart, R. and Coulier, L. 2007. Compliance testing of chemical migration from food contact materials. In: Bernes, K.A., Sinclair, C.R. and Watson, D.H. (eds.) Chemical migration and food contact materials. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK; CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 87-119.