Technological, phytochemical and sensory profile of honey biscuits made from buckwheat, rye, spelt and wheat flour

Main Article Content

D. Hercegová
E. Ivanišová
G. Zagula
M. Terentjeva
M. Kročko
E. Tvrdá
M. Kačániová


bakery product, cereal flour, honey, oxidation stability, mineral elements


Honey biscuit is a worldwide traditional bakery product with a long shelf-life. The aim of the study was to analyse the properties of honey biscuits made from buckwheat, rye, spelt and wheat flour. The biscuits were subjected to physical (hardness and brittleness, oxidation stability), chemical (dry matter content, water activity, crude protein, ash content, fat content, crude fibre content, concentration of mineral elements) and sensory evaluations (general appearance, honey flavour and taste, overall flavour, aftertaste, texture, tenderness). The hardness of biscuits ranged from 768.95 (wheat) to 1,631.53 N (spelt), while their brittleness (dimensionless) oscillated between 476.96 (wheat) and 1,353.26 (spelt). The oxidation stability was found to be the highest in the sample prepared from buckwheat flour (1.80 h). The dry matter content ranged from 91.27 to 91.96% without exceeding 20%. The water activity varied between 0.32 and 0.40 (dimensionless) in accordance with the relevant legislative requirements. The crude protein oscillated between 2.27 and 4.26% while the fat content ranged from 7.89 to 11.71% in the rye and buckwheat products, respectively. The ash content varied between 0.85 (wheat biscuits) to 1.04% (buckwheat biscuits) however the crude fibre content was found to be similar in all analysed samples (~0.5%). P, K, S, Ca and Mg were the most abundant chemical elements detected in the samples, while a possible contamination with heavy metals was negligible. According to the sensory evaluation all biscuits were given very good marks with the wheat and buckwheat biscuits receiving the highest scores

Abstract 145 | PDF Downloads 88


Al-Marazeeq, K.M. and Angor, M.M., 2017. Chemical characteristic and sensory evaluation of biscuit enriched with wheat germ and the effect of storage time on the sensory properties for this product. Food and Nutrition Sciences 8: 189-195.
American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC), 1996. Methods 08-01, 44-05A, 46-13, 54-20. AACC Methods, 8th edition. AACC, St. Paul, MN, USA.
Boj?anská, T. and Fran?áková, H., 2002. The use of spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.) for baking applications. Rostlinná Výroba 48: 41-147.
Codex Alimentarius of Slovakia, 2011. Codex Alimentarius No. 363/2011. Law on the scope and conditions for the payment for medicines, medical devices and dietetic foods on the basis of public health insurance and on amendments to certain acts (as amended by Act No. 460/2012, 265/2015, 306/2016, 336/2017, 351/2017). Available at: (in slovak)
Fatrcová-Šramková, K., Lacko-Bartošová, M. and Máriássyová, M., 2010. Bioproducts made from spelt, wheat (Triticum spelta) and their antioxidant properties. Problemy Ekologii 14: 185-187.
Filip?ev, B., Šimurina, O., Bodroža-Solarov, M. and Vujakovi?, M., 2011. Evaluation of physical, textural and microstructural properties of dough and honey biscuits enriched with buckwheat and rye. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly 17: 291-298.
Frost, D.J., Adhikari, K. and Lewis, D.S., 2011. Effect of barley flour on the physical and sensory characteristics of chocolate chip cookies. Journal of Food Sciences and Technology 48: 569-576.
Gani, A., Sajad Mohd, W. and Masoodi, F.A., 2012. Whole-grain cereal bioactive compounds and their benefits. A review. Food Processing and Technology 3: 2-10.
Ganorkar, P. and Jain, R., 2014. Effect of flaxseed incorporation on physical, sensorial, textural and chemical attributes of cookies. International Food Research Journal 21: 1515-1521.
Goesaert, H., Brijs, K., Veraverbeke, W.S., Courtin, C.M., Gebers, K. and Delcour, J.A., 2005. Wheat flour constituents: how they impact bread quality, and how to impact their functionality. Trends in Food Science and Technology 16: 12-30.
Gumul, D., Korus, J. and Achremowicz, B., 2007. The influence of extrusion on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant/antiradical activity of rye grains (Secale cereale L.). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria 6: 103-111.
Hussain, N., Ali, M., Hussain, S., Mehmood, K. and Nasir, M., 2017. Mineral composition and sensory evaluation of buckwheat cookies supplemented with wheat flour. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 2: 114-118.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1997. ISO 6886:1997. Animal and vegetable fats and oils-determination of oxidation stability (accelerated oxidation test). ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
Jauharah, A., Rosli, W. and Robert, S., 2014. Physicochemical and sensorial evaluation of biscuit and muffin incorporated with young corn powder. Sains Malaysiana 43: 45-52.
Karao?lu, M.M. and Kotancilar, H.G., 2009. Quality and textural behavior of prebaked and rebaked cake during prolonged storage. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 44: 93-99.
Khouryieh, H. and Aramouni, F., 2012. Physical and sensory characteristics of cookies prepared with flaxseed flour. Journal of the Science and Food Agriculture 92: 2366-2372.
Kieslingerová, N. and Bartl, V. 1993. Stanovení a význam vodní activity (Determination and importance of water activity). Veteriná?iství 4: 145-148.
Masoodi, L. and Bashir, V., 2012. Fortification of biscuit with flaxseed: biscuit production and quality evaluation. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science Toxicology Food Technology 1: 6-9.
Muchová, Z., Fran?áková, H. and Boj?anská, T., 2011. Evaluation of raw materials and food of plant origin. Slovak University of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovakia.
Pereira, D., Correia, P.M.R. and Guiné, R.P.F., 2013. Analysis of the physical-chemical and sensorial properties of Maria type cookies. Acta Chimica Slovaca 6: 269-280.
Ruibal-Mendieta, N.L., Delacroix, D.L., Mignolet, E., Pycke, J.M., Marques, C., Rozenberg, R., Petitjean, G., Habib-Jiwan, J.L., Meurens, M., Quetin-Leclercq, J.Q., Delzenne, N.M. and Larondelle, Y., 2005. Spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) as a source of breadmaking flours and bran naturally enriched in oleic acid and minerals but not phytic acid. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 53: 2751-2759.
SAS Institute, 2009. Users guide version 9.2. SAS/STAT (r), SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Seyhun, N., Sumnu, G. and Sahin, S., 2003. Effects of different emulsifier types, fat contents, and gum types on retardation of staling of microwave-baked cakes. Nahrung 47: 248-251.
Slovak Legislative, 2014. Decree of the ministry of agriculture and rural development of the Slovak Republic from 23 January 2014, No. 24/2014 for bakery products, confectionery and pasta products. Slovak government, Staré Mesto, Slovakia.
Taiwo, E.O., Sekinat, A.A., Adegbola, D.O., Kemisola, A.A. and Jole, S.A., 2017. Chemical composition and sensory properties of wheat-sorghum date cookies. Croatian Journal of Food Technology, Biotechnology and Nutrition 12: 71-76.
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2014. National nutrient database for standard reference. Available at:,4055/
Wronkowska, M., Soral-?mietana, M. and Krupa-Kolak, U., 2010. Buckwheat as a food component of a high nutritional value under the prophylaxis of gastrointestinal diseases. European Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology 4: 64-70.
Zálešáková, A., Bielková, S., Gregová, E. and Kraic, J., 2014. Searching quality sources in a collection of genetic resources of wheat. Nova Biotechnologica 4: 235-245.