Effects of wheat cultivar, cooking method, and bulgur type on the yield and colour properties of bulgur

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A. Kaplan Evlice
H. Özkaya


bulgur quality, cultivar, cooking method, bulgur type, yield, colour


Making bulgur is an ancient process and bulgur may, in fact, be man’s first processed food. Technological improvement is essential in order to achieve higher quality bulgur. The steam cooker is gaining popularity these days since it preserves the nutritional value of the food during the cooking. In the present study, coarse and fine bulgur types were produced from bread and durum wheat cultivars by using steam cooker and autoclave to determine the effects of cultivar, cooking method, and bulgur type on the yield and colour properties of bulgur. The less total bulgur yield was determined at durum wheat cultivars and autoclave cooking method because of the higher amount of bran removed. The percentage of the bulgur samples having a particle size ranging between 2.0 and 2.5 mm was the highest for both cooking methods. Durum wheat cultivars possessed harder and more breakable grain structure during the bulgur production, which caused 11.9% less coarse and 11.4% more fine bulgur yields. The kernels cooked in steam cooker also tended to break more during the debranning process which raised about 20% more fine bulgur yield. Bulgur produced from durum wheat cultivars possessed higher lightness (L) and yellowness (b), and lower redness (a) colour values. During the bulgur production, a decrease (11.6%) in ‘L’ colour value and an increase (164.6%) in ‘a’ colour value was determined from raw material to bulgur. The application of high temperature and pressure used for autoclave cooking caused darkening of bulgur colour. The coarse bulgur type had higher ‘L’ colour value and lower ‘a’ colour value. The steam cooker has been utilised for the first time in bulgur production as a cooking method, although it causes a higher amount of breakage of the kernels, the bulgur maintains the yellowish colour which is a desired trait.

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