Main Article Content
BAM method, NEO-GRID HGMF, TEMPO YM, yeast and mould enumeration
Several rapid methods have been developed for the enumeration of yeast and mould in foods. Among these rapid methods, the NEO-GRID hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) requires a considerably short incubation period and the TEMPO YM offers automation. TEMPO YM and NEO-GRID HGMF were compared with the current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) method, the reference method, for the enumeration of yeast and mould in foods. This study of method comparison was conducted using 261 naturally contaminated food samples including dried fruits, marmalade, flour, pastry, sausage, nuts, sauce and spices. The results of the statistical analysis of different food categories demonstrated that differences between the rapid methods and the FDA method were not significant (P?0.05). Both TEMPO YM and NEO-GRID HGMF are rapid and efficient alternative methods for the enumeration of yeast and mould in foods.
Anonymous, 2010. TEMPO YM (yeasts/moulds), Ref 80 001. bio-Me ?rieux, Marcy-l’Etoile, France.
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), 1993. Compendium of analytical methods, volume 2, appendix C: calculating the most probable number growth units. CFIA, Ottawa, Canada.
Entis, P., 1996. Two-day hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for yeast and mould enumeration in foods using YM-11 agar: collaborative study. Journal of AOAC International 79: 1069-1082.
Entis, P. and Lerner, I., 1996. Two-day yeast and mould enumeration using the ISO-GRID® membrane filtration system in conjunction with YM-11 agar. Journal of Food Protection 59: 416-419.
Ferrati, A.R., Tavolaro, P., Destro, M.T., Landgraf, M. and Franco, B.D.G.M., 2005. Comparison of ready-to-use systems for evaluating the microbiological quality of acidic fruit juices using non-pasteurized orange juice as an experimental model. International Microbiology 8: 49-53.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 2001. Bacteriological analytical manual, chapter 18: yeasts, moulds and mycotoxins. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2007. ISO 7218 Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - general requirements and guidance for microbiological examinations. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2008a. ISO 21527-1 Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - horizontal method for the enumeration of yeasts and moulds - Part 1: Colony count technique in products with water activity greater than 0.95. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2008b. ISO 21527-2 Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - horizontal method for the enumeration of yeasts and moulds - Part 2: Colony count technique in products with water activity less than or equal to 0.95. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
Katase, M. and Tsumura, K., 2011. Enumeration of micro-organisms in processed soy products with an automated most probable number method compared with standard plate method. Letters in Applied Microbiology 53: 539-545.
Kawasaki, S., Nazuka, E., Bari, M.L., Amano, Y., Yoshida, M. and Isshiki, K., 2003. Comparison of traditional culture method with DOX System for detecting coliform and Escherichia coli from vegetables. Food Science and Technology Research 9: 304-308.
Laki?evi?, B., Velebit, B., Borovi?, B., Jankovi?, V., Spiri?, D., Matekalo-Sverak, V. and Lili?, S., 2011. TEMPO most probable number technique for the enumeration of yeasts and moulds in feed and food products. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry 27: 1331-1335.
Owen, M., Willis, C. and Lamph, D., 2010. Evaluation of the TEMPO® most probable number technique for the enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae in food and dairy products. Journal of Applied Microbiology 109: 1810-1816.
Ray, B. and Bhunia, A., 2008. Fundamental food microbiology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
Spangenberg, D.S. and Ingham, S.C., 2000. Comparison of methods for enumeration of yeasts and moulds in shredded low-moisture, part-skim mozzarella cheese. Journal of Food Protection 63: 529-533.
Torlak, E., Akan, I.M. and Gökmen, M., 2008. Comparison of TEMPO EC and TBX medium for the enumeration of Escherichia coli in cheese. Letters in Applied Microbiology 47: 566-570.
Tournas, V.H., 2009. Evaluation of the hydrophobic grid membrane filter for the enumeration of moulds and yeasts in naturally-contaminated foods. Microbiology Insights 2: 31-37.
Tournas, V.H., Calo, J.R. and Memon, S., 2011. Comparison of the SimPlate Yeast and Mould Color Indicator to the BAM method for quantification of fungi in naturally-contaminated foods. Food Control 22: 775-777.
Wu, V.C.H. and Fung, D.Y.C., 2004. An improved method for a hydrophobic grid-membrane filter system to detect heat-injured foodborne pathogens in ground beef. Journal of Food Science 69: 85-89.
Zitz, U., Domig, K.J., Hoehl, A., Weiss, H., Wilrich, P.T. and Kneifel, W., 2011. Evaluation of three applications of a semi-automated most-probable-number method for the assessment of microbiological parameters in dairy products. Accreditation and Quality Assurance 16: 299-309.