Main Article Content
additive, bread, emulsifier, enzyme, lupin flour, oxidant
Effects of some enzymes (transglutaminase; TG and glucosoxidase; GO), emulsifiers (sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate; SSL, diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono and diglycerides; DATEM, and SSL+DATEM combination) and oxidant (ascorbic acid; AA) on the properties of dough and bread made of a wheat flour (WF) and lupin flour (LF) blend were determined. LF replaced with WF at a 15% level in all dough formulation. All additives except TG increased development time and stability of dough containing 15% LF. While the highest dough energy obtained with AA addition, maximum resistance value increased from 217 BU up to 434 BU with TG usage in dough formulation. SSL+DATEM combination gave highest bread volume and lowest crumb hardness at 24 and 72 h. Generally, SSL+DATEM and AA had a more positive effect on symmetry, pore structure and crumb texture of the bread than the other additives. For improvement of the properties bread prepared with WF-LF blend, SSL+DATEM combination as emulsifier and AA as oxidant can be recommended. Effect of TG and GO on bread properties were found limited compared to AA.
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