Characteristics of thick kmaj bread enrichment with faba bean (Vicia faba) flour

Main Article Content

R.Y. Ajo


bread quality, composite flour, faba bean, kmaj bread


Thick kmaj is a flat bread type known in the west as pita bread that promotes the use of composite flour from inexpensive sources with high protein content to substitute wheat flour to produce protein-enriched bread. The effect of replacing 5, 10 and 15% of wheat flour (WF) with faba bean flour (FBF) in thick kmaj bread was evaluated compared to bread produced from wheat flour (WFB). The breads produced were evaluated using straight dough method. Proximate chemical evaluation of WF and FBF and breads showed that protein, fat and crude fibre content were increased with increasing FBF. The corresponding bread protein content increased significantly from 12.89% in WFB to 19.69% in 15% FBF bread, while bread fat content increased from 1.06% to 1.23%. The upper layer percentage was higher in bread with 15% FBF compared to the control. Sensory analysis results showed that the total score of bread was significantly higher in control and the 5% FBF replacement. The thick kmaj bread produced from composite flour 5% and 10% of FBF did not affect the sensory acceptability whereas all breads produced from composite flour improved nutritionally.

Abstract 31 | PDF Downloads 36


Abdel-Kader, Z., 2000. Enrichment of Egyptian ‘balady’ bread. Part 1. Baking studies, physical and sensory evaluation of enrichment with decorticated cracked broad beans flour (Vicia faba L.). Nahrung 44: 418-421.
Abdul-Hussain, S., Ajo, R. and Obeidat, B., 2010. Acceptability and chemical composition of thick flat bread supplemented with chickpea flour and isolated soy protein. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Congress FLOUR-BREAD ‘09 and 7thCroatian Congress of Cereal Technologists, October 21-23, 2009, Opatija, Croatia, pp. 280-287. Available at:
Al-Dmoor, H., 2012. Flat bread: ingredients and fortification. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 4: 2-8.
American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC), 2000. Approved methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists. AACC, St. Paul, MN, USA.
Amr, A., 1988. A preliminary study of Arab Middle Eastern breads with reference to Jordan. Dirasat 15: 81-98.
Amr, A. and Ajo, R., 2005. Production of two types of pocket-forming flat bread by sponge and dough method. Cereal Chemistry 82: 499-503.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 1997. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International (16th Ed.). AOAC, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
Boj?anská, T., Fran?áková, H., Líšková, M. and Tokár, M., 2012. Legumes – the alternative raw materials for bread production. Journal of Microbiology Biotechnology and Food Sciences 1: 876-886.
Cauvain, S. and Young, L., 2000. Bakery food manufacture and quality, water control and effects. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.
?uri?, D., Karlvki?, D., Tušak, D., Petrovi?, B. and Ðugum, J., 2001. Gluten as a standard of wheat flour quality.Food Technology and Biotechnology39: 353-361.
Duodu, K. and Minnaar, A., 2011. Legume composite flours and baked goods: nutritional, functional, sensory, and phytochemical qualities. In: Preedy, V., Watson, R. and Patel, V. (eds.) Flour and breads and their fortification in health and disease prevention. Elsevier, Oxford, UK, pp. 193-204.
Eissa, H., Hussein, A. and Mostafa, B., 2007. Rheological properties and quality evaluation of Egyptian balady bread and biscuits supplemented with flours of ungerminated and germinated legume seeds or mushroom. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences57: 487-496.
Giami, S.Y., Amasisi, T. and Ekiyor, G., 2004. Comparison of bread making properties of composite flour from kernels of roasted and boiled African breadfruit (Treculia Africana decene) seeds. Journal of Materials Research 1: 16-25.
Hassan, H., Mustafa, A. and Ahmed, A., 2011. Utilization of decorticated pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) with wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours in bread making. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology3: 413-417.
International Association for Cereal Science and Technology (ICC), 1994. Approved methods of the International Association of Cereal Chemists. ICC, Hamburg, Germany.
Jooyandeh, H., 2009. Evaluation of physical and sensory properties of Iranian lavash flat bread supplemented with precipitated whey protein (PWP). African Journal of Food Science 3: 28-34.
Jordan Institution of Standards and Metrology (JISM), 2005. Wheat flour standard, no. 293. Technical Regulation, Amman, Jordan.
Kailasapathy, K. and MacNeil, J., 1985. Baking studies with winged bean (Psophacarpus tetragonobus L.DC) flour-wheat flour blend. Journal Food Science 50: 1672-1675.
Olaoye, O. and Ade-Omowaye, B., 2011. Composite flours and breads: potential of local crops in developing countries. In: Preedy, V., Watson, R. and Patel, V. (eds.) Flour and breads and their fortification in health and disease prevention. Elsevier, Oxford, UK, pp. 183-203.
Olaoye, O.A., Onilude, A.A. and Idowu, O.A., 2006. Quality characteristics of bread produced from composite flours of wheat, plantain and soybeans. African Journal of Biotechnology 5: 1102-1106
Paulley, F., Williams, P. and Preston, K., 1998. Effect of ingredients and processing conditions on bread quality when baking Syrian tow- layered flat bread from Canadian wheat in traveling oven. Cereal Foods World 43: 91-95.
Qarooni, J., Ponte, J. and Posner, S., 1992. Flat breads of the world. Cereal Foods World 37: 863-865.
Quail, K., 1996. Arabic bread production. AACC, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.
Sabanis, D., Makri, E. and Doxastakis, G., 2006. Effect of durum flour enrichment with chickpea flour on the characteristics of dough and lasagne. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86: 1938-1944.
SAS Institute, 2002. SAS user’s guide in statistics, 9th Ed. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
Shahzadi, N., Butt, M., Rehman, S. and Sharif, K., 2005. Rheological and baking characters of composite flours. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 7:100-104.
Yamsaengsung, R., Schoenlechner, R. and Berghofer, E., 2010. The effects of chickpea on the functional properties of white and whole wheat bread. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 45: 610-620.