Effect of the replacement of sugar with spray dried grape pekmez (pekmez powder) on some properties of cookies

Main Article Content

M.K. Demir


cookie, grape, nutrition, pekmez powder, spray dry


Pekmez is a rich food product that contains many nutrients necessary particularly for children. Sugar, a part of cookie formulation, is known to affect physical, chemical and sensory properties of food products, as well as, giving a sweet taste. In this study, use of powdered form of pekmez instead of sugar in cookies was investigated. Liquid grape pekmez and maltodextrin as a carrier (40-60% v/w) were spray-dried using a spray-dryer unit. The obtained pekmez powder (PP) was used as a replacement of sugar at different ratios (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) for the production of cookies. In this respect, physical, chemical, sensory properties and total mineral content of cookies were determined. The results revealed that use of PP increased ash content of the cookies. PP addition decreased spread ratios, but increased hardness values, resulting in darker cookies in colour along with lower brightness. Optimum combinations in terms of sensory properties was 50% sugar plus 50% PP. PP addition increased potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and zinc contents of the cookies. In conclusion, cookies which are consumed particularly by children were satisfactorily improved in terms of nutritional properties by replacement of sugar with PP.

Abstract 63 | PDF Downloads 49


Ajila, C.M., Leelavathi, K. and Prasada Rao, U.J.S., 2007. Improvement of dietary fiber content and antioxidant properties in soft dough biscuits with the incorporation of mango peel powder. Journal of Cereal Science 48: 319-326.
Aksu, M.F. and Nas, S., 1996. Mulberry pekmez manufacturing technique and physical and chemical properties. Gida 21: 83-88.
Alpaslan, M. and Hayta, M., 2002. Rheological and sensory properties of pekmez (grape molasses)/tahin (sesame paste) blends. Journal of Food Engineering54: 89-93.
American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC), 2000. Approved methods of the AACC. AACC, St. Paul, MN, USA.
Arslan, E., Yener, M.E. and Esin, A., 2005. Rheological characterization of tahin/pekmez (sesame paste/concentrated grape juice) blends. Journal of Food Engineering69: 167-172.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 1984. Official methods of analysis, 14th Ed. AOAC, Arlington, VA, USA.
Ayd?n, C. and Ö?üt, H. 1991. Determination of some biological properties of Amasya apple and hazelnuts. Selcuk University Agriculture Faculty Journal 1: 45-54.
Bubert, H. and Hagenah, W.D., 1987. Detection and measurement. In: Boumans, P.W.J.M. (ed.) Inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Wiley-Interscience Publishers, NewYork, NY, USA, pp. 536-567.
Cemero?lu, B. 1992. Meyve ve sebze i?leme endüstrisinde temel analiz metotlar?. Biltav Yay?nlar?, Ankara, Turkey.
Certel, M., Erem, F. and Karaka?, B., 2009. Variation of microbiological properties, water activity and ropiness of white and whole meal breads under different storage condition. Gida 34: 351-358.
Demirözü, B., Sökmen, M., Uçak, A., Y?lmaz, H. and Gülderen, ?., 2002. Variation of copper, iron, and zinc levels in pekmez products. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology69: 330-334.
Do?an, I.S. and U?ur, T., 2005. A study on the quality of wheat grown in Van region for biscuit production. Yuzuncu Y?l University Journal of Agricultural Sciences 15: 139-148.
Erdo?rul, O., 2008. Pesticide residues in liquid pekmez (grape molasses). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 144: 323-328.
Fitzpatrick, J.J., Hodnett, M., Twomey, M., Cerqueira, P.S.M., O’Flynn, J. and Roos, Y.H., 2007. Glass transition and the flowability and caking of powders containing amorphous lactose. Powder Technology 178: 119-128.
Fitzpatrick, J.J., Iqbal, T., Delaney, C., Twomey, T. and Keogh, M.K., 2004. Effect of powder properties and storage conditions on the flowability of milk powders with different fat contents. Journal of Food Engineering 64: 435-444.
Francis, F.J. 1998. Colour analysis. In: Nielsen, S.S. (ed.) Food analysis. An Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, pp. 599-612.
Hussain, S., Anjum, F.M., Butt, M.S., Khan, M.I. and Asghar, A., 2006. Physical and sensoric attributes of flaxseed flour supplemented cookies. Turkish Journal of Biology 30: 87-92.
Inan, O., Arslan, D., Ta?demir, S. and Ozcan, M.M., 2011. Application of fuzzy expert system approach on prediction of some quality characteristics of grape juice concentrate (Pekmez) after different heat treatments. Journal of Food Science and Technology 48: 423-431.
Indrani, D., Prabhasankar, P., Rajiv, J. and Venkateswara Rao, G., 2007. Influences of whey protein concentrate on the rheological characteristics of dough, microstructure and quality of unleavened flat bread (Parotta). Food Research International 40: 1254-1260.
Jayasena, V. and Nasar-Abbas, S.M., 2011. Effect of lupin flour incorporation on the physical characteristics of dough and biscuits. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, 3: 140-147.
Karababa, E. and Isikli, N.D., 2005. Pekmez: a traditional concentrated fruit product. Food Reviews International 21: 357-366.
Karakaya, S. and Kavas, A., 1999. Antimutagenic activities of some foods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79: 237-242.
Kaya, A. and Beliba?li, K.B., 2002. Rheology of solid Gaziantep pekmez. Journal of Food Engineering 54: 221-226.
Kaya, A., Ko, S. and Gunasekaran, S., 2011. Viscosity and color change during in situ solidification of grape pekmez. Food and Bioprocess Technology 4: 241-246.
Kay??o?lu, S. and Demirci, M., 2006. Effects of storage time and condition on mineral contents of grape pekmez produced by vacuum and classical methods. Journal of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty 3: 1-7.
Savitha, Y.S., Indrani, D. and Prakash, J., 2008. Effect of replacement of sugar with sucralose and maltodextrin on rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough and quality of soft dough biscuits. Journal of Texture Studies 39: 605-616.
Sengül, M., Ertugay, M.F. and Sengül, M., 2005. Rheological, physical and chemical characteristics of mulberry pekmez. Food Control 16: 73-76.
Shewry, P.R., Lafiandra, D. and Bedo, Z., 2012. Improving the nutritional quality and health benefits of wheat. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 4: 136-136.
?im?ek, A., Art?k, N. and Baspinar, E., 2004. Detection of raisin concentrate (Pekmez) adulteration by regression analysis method. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 17: 155-163.
Tosun, I. and Ustun, N.S., 2003. Nonenzymic browning during storage of white hard grape pekmez (Zile pekmezi). Food Chemistry 80: 441-443.
Y?lmaz, M.T., Sert, D. and Karakaya, M., 2009. Rheological and sensory properties of spray dried pekmez mixtures with wheat starch-gum. International Journal of Food Properties 12: 691-704.
Yo?urtçu, H. and Kam??l?, F. 2006. Determination of rheological properties of some pekmez samples in Turkey. Journal of Food Engineering 77: 1064-1068.