Changes in bioaccessibility, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of novel crackers with turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L.) powders

Main Article Content

E. Yildiz
G. Gungor
H. Yilmaz
D. Gocmen

Keywords

bioaccessibility, functional food, healthy food, anti-oxidant

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of supplementing turmeric and/or mahaleb powders in crackers to enhance phenolic content and antioxidant activity. They replaced wheat flour for 0, 5.0, or 7.5%. The highest bioaccessible phenolics (7,591.90 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g dry weight) and phenolic bioaccessibility values (77.94%) were obtained in the 7.5M7.5T sample. Turmeric and/or mahaleb powders’ addition had a positive effect on phenolic contents and bioaccessibilities of the cracker samples. In all assays, antioxidant capacities of the crackers supplemented with turmeric and/or mahaleb powders were significantly (P?0.05) higher than the control crackers. The results showed that the samples with turmeric and/or mahaleb powders exhibited significantly (P?0.05) higher bioaccessible antioxidants than the control sample. Bioaccessibilities of crackers based on antioxidant capacity increased linearly with supplementation increments. Antioxidant bioaccessibility of the crackers ranged between 9.00 to 47.29% for the TEACABTS, 11.54 to 14.47% for the TEACCUPRAC and 12.47 to 20.59% for the TEACDPPH. The highest antioxidant bioaccessibilities (47.29%, 14.47%, and 20.59%) in all assays (respectively ABTS, CUPRAC, and DPPH) were obtained in the 7.5M7.5T sample. According to sensorial evaluations, generally, all supplemented crackers scored higher than the control. The taste of the crackers improved by supplementation of turmeric and/or mahaleb powders, as these crackers had typical pleasant mahaleb and turmeric flavour. Overall results suggest that turmeric and mahaleb powders are functional food additives with high phenolic content, bioaccessibility and antioxidant capacity. They can be used in foods, especially in bakery products, without any adverse effect on sensory properties.

Abstract 136 | PDF Downloads 121

References

Ahmed, Z.S. and Abozed, S.S., 2015. Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product. Journal of Advanced Research 6: 79-87.
Ak, T. and Gulcin, I., 2008. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of curcumin. Chemico-Biological Interactions 174: 27-37.
Alminger, M., Aura, A.M., Bohn, T., Dufour, C., El, S.N., Gomes, A., Karakaya, S., Martínez-Cuesta, M.C., McDougall, G.J., Requena, T. and Santos, C.N., 2014. In vitro models for studying secondary plant metabolite digestion and bioaccessibility. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 13: 413-436.
Anson, N.M., Selinheimo, E., Havenaar, R., Aura, A.M., Mattila, I., Lehtinen, P. and Haenen, G.R.M.M., 2009. Bioprocessing of wheat bran improves in vitro bioaccessibility and colonic metabolism of phenolic compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57: 6148-6155.
Apak, R., Guclu, K., Ozyurek, M. and Celik, S.E., 2008. Mechanism of antioxidant capacity assays and the CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay. Microchimica Acta 160: 413-419.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 2000. Official methods of analysis, 17th edition. AOAC, Rockville, MD, USA.
Blando, F., Albano, C., Liu, Y., Nicoletti, I., Corradini, D., Tommasi, N., Gerardi, C., Mitaa, G. and Kitts, D.D., 2016. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of the under-utilized Prunus mahaleb L. fruit. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 96: 2641-2649.
Boskou, D., Tsimidou, M. and Blekas, G., 2006. Polar phenolic compounds. Olive oil: chemistry and technology. AOCS Press Urbana, IL, USA, pp. 73-92.
Bouayed, J., Deu?er, H., Hoffmann, L. and Bohn, T., 2012. Bioaccessible and dialysable polyphenols in selected apple varieties followingin vitro digestion vs. their native patterns. Food Chemistry 131: 1466-1472.
Buhrmann, C., Kraehe, P., Lueders, C., Shayan, P., Goel, A. and Shakibaei, M., 2014. Curcumin suppresses crosstalk between colon cancer stem cells and stromal fibroblasts in the tumor microenvironment: potential role of EMT. PLoS ONE 9: e10751424.
Chandran, B. and Goel, A.A., 2012. Randomized, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Phytotherapy Research 26: 1719-1725.
Chen, G.L., Chen, S.G., Chen, F., Xie, Y.Q., Han, M.D., Luo, C.X. and Gao, Y.Q., 2016. Nutraceutical potential and antioxidant benefits of selected fruit seeds subjected to an in vitro digestion. Journal of Functional Foods 20: 317-331.
Etcheverry, P., Grusak, M.A. and Fleige, L.E., 2012. Application ofin vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability methods for calcium, carotenoids, folate, iron, magnesium, polyphenols, zinc, and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E. Frontiers in Physiology 3: 317.
González-Aguilar, G.A., Blancas-Benítez, F.J. and Sáyago-Ayerdi, S.G., 2017. Polyphenols associated with dietary fibers in plant foods: molecular interactions and bioaccessibility. Current Opinion in Food Science 13: 84-88.
Gupta, S.C., Patchva, S., Koh, W. and Aggarwal, B.B., 2012. Discovery of curcumin, a component of golden spice, and its miraculous biological activities. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 39: 283-299.
Han, J., Janz, J.A.M. and Gerlat, M., 2010. Development of gluten-free cracker snacks using pulse flours and fractions. Food Research International 43: 627-633.
Hefnawy, T.H., El-Shourbagy, G.A. and Ramadan, M.F., 2016. Phenolic extracts of carrot, grape leaf and turmeric powder: antioxidant potential and application in biscuits. Food Measure 10: 576-583.
Hemery, Y.M., Anson, N.M., Havenaar, R., Haenen, G.R., Noort, M.W. and Rouau, X., 2010. Dry-fractionation of wheat bran increases the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in breads made from processed bran fractions. Food Research International 43: 1429-1438.
Herken, E.N., Simsek, S., Ohm, J.B. and Yurdunuseven, A., 2017. Effect of mahaleb on cookie quality. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 41: e13032.
Hoseney, R.C., 1998. Cereal science and technology. American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC) Incorporation, St. Paul, MN, USA, 378 pp.
Huang, M.T., Wang, Z.Y., Georgiadis, C.A., Laskin, J.D. and Conney, A.H., 1991. Inhibitory effects of curcumin on tumor initiation by benzo [a] pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Carcinogenesis 13: 2183-2186.
Ireson, C.S., Orr, D.J.L., Jones, R., Verschoyle, C., Lim, J., Luo, L., Howells, L., Plummer, S., Jukes, R., Williams, M., Steward, W.P. and Gescher, A., 2001. Characterization of metabolites of the chemopreventive agent curcumin in human and rat hepatocytes and in the rat in vivo, and evaluation of their ability to inhibit phorbol ester-induced prostaglandin E2 production. Cancer Research 61: 1058-1064.
Juániz, I., Ludwig, I.A., Bresciani, L., Dall’Asta, M., Mena, P., Del Rio, D. and De Peña, M.P., 2016. Catabolism of raw and cooked green pepper (Capsicum annuum)(poly) phenolic compounds after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and faecal fermentation. Journal of Functional Foods 27: 201-213.
Kim, G.Y., Kim, J.K., Kang, W.W., Kim, J.G. and Joo, G.J., 2005. Shelf-life extension of rice cake by the addition of persimmon leaf tea powder. Food Science and Biotechnology 14: 196-199.
Kroll, J., Rawel, H.M. and Rohn, S., 2003. Reactions of plant phenolics with food proteins and enzymes under special consideration of covalent bonds. Food Science and Technology Research 9: 205-218.
Kulthe, A.A., Pawar, V.D., Kotecha, P.M., Chavan, U.D. and Bansode, V.V., 2014. Development of high protein and low calorie cookies. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51: 153-157.
Lean, L.P. and Mohamed, S., 1999. Antioxidative and antimycotic effects of turmeric, lemon-grass, betel leaves, clove, black pepper leaves and Garcinia atroviridis on butter cakes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79: 1817-1822.
Li, J., Hou, G.G., Chen, Z., Chung, A.L. and Gehring, K., 2014. Studying the effects of whole-wheat flour on the rheological properties and the quality attributes of whole-wheat saltine cracker using SRC, alveograph, rheometer, and NMR technique. LWT – Food Science and Technology 55: 43-50.
Lim, S.T. and Han, J.A., 2016. Improvement in antioxidant functionality and shelf life of yukwa (fried rice snack) by turmeric (Curcuma longaL.) powder addition. Food Chemistry 199: 590-596.
Liu, F. and Ng, T.B., 2000. Antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities of selected medicinal herbs. Life Sciences 66: 725-737.
Mancini, S., Preziuso, G. and Paci, G., 2016. Effect of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) and ascorbic acid on antioxidant capacity and oxidative status in rabbit burgers after cooking. World Rabbit Science 24: 121-127.
Manley, D., 1991. Technology of biscuits, crackers and cookies. Ellis Horwood series in Food. Thomson Learning Series, Springer, New York, NY, USA.
Mariod, A.A., Ibrahim, R.M., Ismail, M. and Ismail, N., 2010. Antioxidant activities of phenolic rich fractions (PRFs) obtained from black mahaleb (Monechma ciliatum) and white mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb) seedcakes. Food Chemistry118: 120-127.
Masoodi, F.A. and Chauhan, G.S., 1998. Use of apple pomace as a source of dietary fiber in wheat bread. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 22: 255-263.
Minekus, M., Alminger, M., Alvito, P., Balance, S., Bohn, T., Bourlieu, C., Carrière, F., Boutrou, R., Corredig, M., Dupont, D., Dufour, C., Egger, L., Golding, M., Karakaya, S., Kirkhus, B., Le Feunteun, S., Lesmes, U., Macierzanka, A., Mackie, A., Marze, S., McClements, D.J., Ménard, O., Recio, I., Santos, C.N., Singh, R.P., Vegarud, G.E., Wickham, M.S., Weitschies, W. and Brodkorb, A., 2014. Standardised static in vitro digestion method suitable for food – an international consensus. Food and Function 5: 1113-1124.
Miquel, J., Bernd, A., Sempere, J.M., Diaz, A. and Ramiraz, A., 2002. The curcuma antioxidants: pharmacological effects and prospects future clinical use. A review. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics Supplement 34: 37-46.
Mosele, J.I., Maci a, A., Romero, M.P., Motilva, M.J. and Rubio, L., 2015. Application of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation models to pomegranate products (juice, pulp and peel extract) to study the stability and catabolism of phenolic compounds. Journal of Functional Foods 14: 529-540.
Mosele, J.I., Macià, A., Romero, M.P., Motilva, M.J. and Rubió, L., 2016. Application of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation models to pomegranate products (juice, pulp and peel extract) to study the stability and catabolism of phenolic compounds. Journal of Functional Foods 14: 529-540.
Nammakuna, N., Barringer, S.A. and Ratanatriwong, P., 2016. The effects of protein isolates and hydrocolloids complexes on dough rheology, physicochemical properties and qualities of gluten-free crackers. Food Science and Nutrition 4: 143-155.
Ozturk, I., Karaman, S., Baslar, M., Cam, M., Caliskan, O., Sagdic, O. and Yalcin, H., 2014. Aroma, sugar and anthocyanin profile of fruit and seed of mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L.): optimization of bioactive compounds extraction by simplex lattice mixture design. Food Analytical Methods 7: 761-773.
Patras, A., Brunton, N.P., O’Donnell, C. and Tiwari, B.K., 2010. Effect of thermal processing on anthocyanin stability in foods; mechanisms of kinetics and degradation. Trends in Food Science & Technology 21: 3-11.
Peng, X., Ma, J., Cheng, K.W., Jiang, Y., Chen, F. and Wang, M., 2010. The effects of grape seed extract fortification on the antioxidant activity and quality attributes of bread. Food Chemistry 119: 49-53.
Pereira, M.A., Grubbs, C.J., Barnes, L.H., Li, H., Olson, G.R., Eto, I., Juliana, M., Whitaker, L.M., Kelloff, G.J., Steele, V.E. and Lubet, R.A., 1996. Effects of the phytochemicals, curcumin and quercetin, upon azoxymethane-induced colon cancer and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary cancer in rats. Carcinogenesis 17: 1305-1311.
Rao, C.V., Rivenson, A., Simi, B. and Reddy, B.S., 1995. Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by dietary curcumin, a naturally occurring plant phenolic compound. Cancer Research 55: 259-266.
Sanmukhani, J., Satodia, V., Trivedi, J., Patel, T., Tiwari, D., Panchal, B., Goel, A. and Tripathi, C.B., 2014. Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Phytotherapy Research 28(4): 579-585.
Shakibaei, M., Buhrmann, C., Kraehe, P., Shayan, P., Lueders, C. and Goel, A., 2014. Curcumin chemosensitizes 5-fluorouracil resistant MMR-deficient human colon cancer cells in high density cultures. PLoS ONE 9: e85397.
Toden, S., Okugawa, Y., Jascur, T., Wodarz, D., Komarova, N.L., Buhrmann, C., Shakibaei, M., Boland, C.R. and Goel, A., 2015. Curcumin mediates chemosensitization to 5-fluorouracil through miRNA-induced suppression of epithelial-tomesenchymal transition in chemoresistant colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis 36: 355-367.
Vitali, D., Dragojevic, I.V. and Šebecic, B., 2009. Effects of incorporation of integral raw materials and dietary fibre on the selected nutritional and functional properties of biscuits. Food Chemistry 114: 1462-1469.
Wang, N., Hou, G.G., Kweon, M. and Lee, B., 2016. Effects of particle size on the properties of whole-grain soft wheat flour and its cracker baking performance. Journal of Cereal Science 69: 187-193.
Watanabe, A., Noguchi, N., Fujisawa, A., Kodama, T., Tamura, K., Cynshi, O. and Niki, E., 2000. Stability and reactivity of aryloxyl radicals derived from a novel antioxidant BO-653 and related compounds. Effects of substituent and side chain in solution and membranes. Journal of the American Chemical Society 122: 5438-5442.
Wu, X., Beecher, G., Holden, J., Haytowitz, D., Gebhardt, S.E. and Prior, R.L., 2004. Lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of common foods in the United States. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52: 4026-4037.
Yilmaz, N., Baris, N. and Kocabiyik, T.H., 2014. The effect of infrared stabilized rice bran substitution on nutritional, sensory, and textural properties of cracker. European Food Research and Technology 239: 259-265.
Yu, L.L., Zhou, K.K. and Parry, J., 2005. Antioxidant properties of cold pressed black caraway, carrot, cranberry and hemp seed oils. Food Chemistry 91: 723-729.