Influence of spray-drying on improving the quality of dried carob juice

Main Article Content

H. Ali
A.R. Al-khalifa
W. Aboelsood
G. Bareh
A. Farouk


analytical methods, food quality, rheology, spray-drying, carob


Spray-drying is a suitable method for drying carob juice, a popular drink, without a significant loss in beneficial nutritional properties or powder wetting behaviour. Maltodextrin (MD) was used as a wall material at different concentrations, namely 5, 10, 20 and 30% (MD dry solids/100 g feed mixture dry solids). Physical properties including moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, and colour parameters were studied for the feed samples as well as the samples reconstituted after spray-drying. Moreover, the product yield, bulk density, and powder particle solubility were evaluated, as were their morphology and extent of nonenzymatic browning based on furfural content by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS). The increment in MD content increased the yield, solubility, and moisture, and decreased the bulk density of the spray-dried powder. Simultaneously, MD addition caused a decrease in pH values with an increase in the total soluble solids and titratable acidity of the reconstituted samples in comparison to the feed ones. As the MD to juice ratio increased, the lightness of the powders increased (L*), while both colour parameters a* and b* decreased. Furfural extraction using SPME, followed by GC-MS analysis, showed a decrease in furfural concentration with the addition of MD. The presence of MD as the main carrier agent at a concentration of 20-30% enabled the formation of more homogeneous capsules with a better spherical shape and smoother surface, as observed under SEM. Therefore, MD can be successfully used at a 20-30% concentration to spray-dry carob juice and formulate an instant drink without any drawbacks.

Abstract 73 | PDF Downloads 89


Adams, R.P., 2007. Identification of volatile oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy. Allured Publishing Corporation, Carol Stream, IL, USA.
Adhikari, B., Howes, T., Bhandari, B.R. and Troung, V., 2004. Effect of addition of maltodextrin on drying kinetics and stickiness of sugar and acid-rich foods during convective drying: experiments and modelling. Journal of Food Engineering 62: 53-68.
Akkaya, Z., Schröder, J., Tavman, S., Kumcuoglu, S., Schuchmann, H.P. and Gaukel, V., 2012. Effects of spray drying on physical properties, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of carob molasses. International Journal of Food Engineering 8(4).
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), 2005. Official methods of analysis, 17th edition. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
Ayaz, F.A., Torun, H., Glew, R.H., Bak, Z.D., Chuang, L.T., Presly, J.M. and Andrews, R., 2009. Nutrient content of carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour prepared commercially and domestically. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 64: 286-292.
Ben Hsouna, A., Alayed, A.S. and Abdallah, E.M., 2012. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of crude methanolic extract of pods of Ceratonia siliqua L. against some pathogens and spoilage bacteria. African Journal of Microbiology Research 6: 3480-3484.
Boublenza, I., Lazouni, H.A., Ghaffari, L., Ruiz, K., Fabiano-Tixier, A.-S. and Chemat, F., 2017. Influence of roasting on sensory, antioxidant, aromas, and physicochemical properties of carob pod powder (Ceratonia siliqua L.). Hindawi Journal of Food Quality, Article ID: 4193672.
Brands, C.M.J. and Van Boekel, M.A.J.S., 2001. Reactions of monosaccharides during heating of sugar-casein systems: building of a reaction network model. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 49: 4667-4675.
Çakilcio?lu, U. and Türko?lu, I., 2007. Plants and fruits used for cholesterol treatment by the folk in Elazig. Phytologia Balcanica 13: 239-245.
Chau, C.F., Wang, T.Y. and Wen, L.Y., 2007. Different micronization methods significantly improve the functionality of carrot insoluble fibre. Food Chemistry 100: 1402-1408.
Chopda, C.A. and Barrett, D.M., 2001. Optimization of guava juice and powder production. Journal of Food Processing Preservation 25: 411-430.
Farag, M.A. and El-Kersh, D.M., 2017. Volatiles profiling in Ceratonia siliqua (Carob bean) from Egypt and in response to roasting as analyzed via solid-phase microextraction coupled to chemometrics. Journal of Advanced Research 8: 379-385.
Farouk, A., Pudil, F., Janda, V. and Pokorný, J., 2000. Effect of amino acids on the composition and properties of extruded mixtures of wheat flour and glucose. Nahrung 44: 188-192.
Farouk, A., Pudil, F., Janda, V. and Pokorny, J., 2001. Changes during the extrusion of semolina in mixture with sugars. Czech Journal of Food Science 19: 24-30.
Goula, A.M. and Adamopoulos, K.G., 2008. Effect of maltodextrin addition during spray drying of tomato pulp in dehumidified air: I. Powder properties. Drying Technology 26: 726-737.
Goula, A.M. and Adamopoulos, K.G., 2010. A new technique for spray drying orange juice concentrate. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 11: 342-351.
Guerra-Hernandez, E., Gomez, C.L., Garcia-Villanova, B., Sanchez, N.C. and Gomez, J.M.R., 2002. Effect of storage on non-enzymatic browning of liquid infant milk formulae. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 82: 587-592.
Hashib, S.A., Abd Rahman, N., Suzihaque, M.U.H., Ibrahim, U.-K. and Hanif, N.E., 2015. Effect of slurry concentration and inlet temperature towards glass temperature of spray dried pineapple powder. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 195: 2660-2667.
Jaradat, N.A., 2005. Medical plants utilized in palestinian folk medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus and cardiac diseases. Al-Aqsa University Journal, Natural Sciences Series 9(1): 1-28.
Jridi, M., Souissi, N., Ben Salem, M., Ayadi, M.A., Nasri, M. and Azabou, S., 2015. Tunisian date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by-products: characterization and potential effects on sensory, textural and antioxidant properties of dairy desserts. Food Chemistry 188: 8-15.
Karaaslan, I. and Dalg?ç, A.C., 2014. Spray drying of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) extract. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51: 3014-3025.
Kausadikar, S., Gadhave, A.D. and Waghmare, J., 2015. Microencapsulation of lemon oil by spray drying and its application in flavored tea. Advances in Applied Science Research 6: 69-78.
Khuenpet, K., Charoenjarasrerk, N., Jaijit, S., Arayapoonpong, S. and Jittanit, W., 2016. Investigation of suitable spray drying conditions for sugarcane juice powder production with an energy consumption study. Agriculture and Natural Resources 50: 139-145.
Kivçak, B., Mert, B. and Öztürk, H.T., 2002. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Ceratonia siliqua L. extracts. Turkish Journal of Biology 26: 197-200.
Lev, E. and Amar, Z., 2002. Ethnopharmacological survey of traditional drugs sold in the Kingdom of Jordan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 82: 131-145.
Mahendran, T., 2010. Physico-chemical properties and sensory characteristics of dehydrated guava concentrate effect of drying method and maltodextrin concentration. Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension 13: 48-54.
Nasar-Abbas, S.M., e-Huma, Z., Vu, T.-H., Khan, M.K., Esbenshade, H. and Jayasena, V., 2016. Carob Kibble: a bioactive-rich food ingredient. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 15: 63-72.
Papadakis, S.E., Gardeli, C.I. and Tzia, C., 1998. Raisin extract powder: production, physical and sensory properties. In: Akritidis, C.B., Marinos-Kouris, D. and Saravakos, G.D. (eds.) Drying ‘98. Ziti editions, Thessaloniki, Greece, pp. 1207-1213.
Quek, S.N., Chok, N.K. and Swedlund, P., 2007. The physicochemical properties of spray dried watermelon powders. Chemical Engineering and Processing 46: 386-392.
Saénz, C., Tapia, S., Chávez, J. and Robert, P., 2009. Microencapsulation by spray drying of bioactive compounds from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). Food Chemistry 114: 616-622.
Saikia, S., Mahnot, N.K. and Mahanta, C.L., 2015. Effect of spray drying of four fruit juices on physicochemical, phytochemical and antioxidant properties. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 39: 1656-1664.
Shinoda, Y., Komura, H., Homma, S. and Murata, M., 2005. Browning of model orange juice solution: factors affecting the formation of decomposition products. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 69: 2129-2137.
Shrestha, A.K., Ua-arak, T., Howes, T., Adhikari, B.P. and Bhandari, B.R., 2007. Glass transition behavior of spray dried orange juice powder measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal mechanical compression test (TMCT). International Journal of Food Properties 10: 661-673.
Tan, L.W., Ibrahim, M.N., Kamil, R. and Taip, F.S., 2011. Empirical modeling for spray drying process of sticky and non-sticky products. Procedia Food Science 1: 690-697.
Teranishi, R., Wick, E.L. and Hornstein, I., 1998. Flavor chemistry: 30 years of progress. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY, USA.
Tetik, N., Turhan, I., Karhan, M. and Öziyci, H.R., 2010. Characterization of, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural concentration in carob pekmez. GIDA 35: 417-422.
Tonon, R.V., Grosso, C.R.F. and Hubinger, M.D., 2011. Influence of emulsion composition and inlet air temperature on the microencapsulation of flaxseed oil by spray drying. Food Research International 44: 282-289.
Tounsi, L., Karra, S., Kechaou, H. and Kechaou, N., 2017. Processing, Physico-chemical and functional properties of carob molasses and powders. Food Measure 11: 1440-1448.
Van Boekel, M.A.J.S., 2001. Kinetic aspects of the Maillard reaction: a critical review. Nahrung 45: 150-159.
Yamada, H., Ando, T., Tsutani, K., Amano, S. and Yamamoto, Y., 2009. Mechanism of browning occurring during the processing of semi-dried persimmons. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticulture Science 78: 124-130.
Yousefi, S., Emam-Djomeh, Z. and Mousavi, S.M., 2011. Effect of carrier type and spray drying on the physicochemical properties of powdered and reconstituted pomegranate juice (Punica granatum L.). Journal of Food Science and Technology 48: 677-684.
Yousif, A.K. and Alghzawi, H.M., 2000. Processing and characterization of carob powder. Food Chemistry 69: 283-287.
Youssef, M.K.E., El-Manfaloty, M.M. and Ali, H.A., 2013. Assessment of proximate chemical composition, nutritional status, fatty acid composition and phenolic compounds of carob (Ceratonia Siliqua L.). Food and Public Health 3: 304-308.