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tarhana, gluten-free, common bean, faba bean, chickpea
In this study, common bean hull (CBH), faba bean hull (FBH) and chickpea hull (CH) (4, 8 and 12%) and common bean flour (CBF), faba bean flour (FBF) and chickpea flour (CF) (20, 40 and 60%) was used to replace the gluten-free flour mix (rice flour:corn starch, 50:50) in tarhana formulation. The effects of legume hulls and flours on some physical, chemical and sensory properties of tarhana were evaluated and compared with control samples. All legume hulls and flours substitution increased the ash, protein, Ca, Cu, Mg, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) of the tarhana samples significantly (P<0.05). The protein content of tarhana samples increased 3.3-fold in samples substituted with legume flour (60%) compared to the control. The Ca contents of tarhana samples with CBH and CH were found to be higher than those prepared with CBF and CF. TPC of tarhana samples substituted with legume hulls and flours varied in the range from 504.79 to 1,278.94 mg GAE/kg and 614.73 to 975.87 mg GAE/kg, respectively. Tarhana samples containing 12% FBH and 60% FBF revealed the highest AA values among the samples. Legume hulls and flours decreased the brightness (L*) values of all tarhana samples. The colour of tarhana samples substituted with CBH at all replacement levels and FBF at 60% were found to be the most different from the control. The usage of FBH decreased all sensory attributes except the consistency of tarhana soups despite the high TPC and the AA of tarhana samples. Results show that it is possible to prepare gluten-free tarhana with CBH and CH (up to 8%) and CBF, FBF, CF (up to 20%) without compromising its acceptability and that legume hulls and flours are an excellent nutritional enrichment source of gluten-free tarhana.
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