Main Article Content
optimisation, exotic fruit, fruit residue, polyphenols, response surface
Extracts of Passiflora ligularis Juss. (granadilla) residues (peel, seed and mixed peel, seed) were initially evaluated for antimicrobial potential against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis. Notably, 80% acetone granadilla seed extract showed inhibitory activity against major bacteria (five) compared to the other extracts. Next, the extraction conditions of this extract were optimised, varying the solid/solvent ratio (0.5:10-6.0:10), incubation time (10-60 min) and temperature (30-60 °C), to obtain maximum antimicrobial activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC). A central composite rotatable design (23 factorial arrangement with six axial points and three central points) was used. The temperature and solid/solvent ratio were most significant parameters to obtain extracts with antibacterial potential and significant bioactive compounds content (TPC and TFC). The response surfaces indicated that extracts obtained with increased solid/solvent molar ratio and temperature possess maximum inhibitory potential against most of the tested bacteria. However, extracts obtained with decreased molar ratio and increased temperature will have maximum TPC and TFC, respectively. Collectively, the data demonstrate that granadilla residue extracts have excellent potential as a source of natural antimicrobial and bioactive compounds, under optimised extraction conditions.
Alves, T.M.A., Silva, A.F., Brandão, M., Grand, T.S.M., Smânia, E.F.A., Junior, A.S. and Zani, C.L., 2000. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 95: 367-373.
Al-Zoreky, N.S., 2009. Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit peels. International Journal of Food Microbiology 134: 244-248.
Andrade, J.K.S., Denadai, M., De Oliveira, C.S., Nunes, M.L. and Narain, N., 2017. Evaluation of bioactive compounds potential and antioxidant activity of brown, green and red propolis from Brazilian northeast region. Food Research International 101: 129-138.
Carraz, M., Lavergne, C., Jullian, V., Wright, M., Gairin, J.E., De la Cruz, M.G. and Bourdy, G., 2015. Antiproliferative activity and phenotypic modification induced by selected Peruvian medicinal plants on human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 166(1): 185-199.
Chen, M.J., Chen, K.N. and Lin, C.W., 2004. Sequential quadratic programming for development of a new probiotic diary tofu with glucono-lactone. Journal of Food Science 69(1): 344-350.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), 2015. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests; approved standard, 12th edition. CLSI, Wayne, PA, USA.
Cui, K., Lu, W., Zhu, L., Shen, X. and Hu, J., 2013. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, inhibits Helicobacter pylori peptide deformylase activity. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 435: 289-294.
Dai, J. and Mumper, R.J., 2010. Plant phenolics: extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules 15(1): 7313-7352.
Dewanto, V., Wu, X., Adom, K.K. and Liu, R.H., 2002. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 50(10): 3010-3014.
Djenane, D., Yangüela, J., Montañés, L., Djerbal, M. and Roncalés, P., 2011. Antimicrobial activity of Pistacia lentiscus and Satureja montana essential oils against Listeria monocytogenes CECT 935 using laboratory media: efficacy and synergistic potential in minced beef. Food Control 22(1): 1046-1053.
Gyawali, R. and Ibrahim, S.A., 2014. Natural products as antimicrobial agentes. Food Control 46: 412-429.
Ismail, T., Sestili, P. and Akhtar, S., 2012. Pomegranate peel and fruit extracts: a review of potential anti-inflammatory and antiinfective effects. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 143(2): 397-405.
Lai, P. and Roy, J., 2004. Antimicrobial and chemopreventive properties of herbs and spices. Current Medicinal Chemistry 11(11): 1451-1460.
Mirabella, N., Castellani, V., Sala, S., 2014. Current options for the valorization of food manufacturing waste: a review. Journal of Cleaner Production 65(1): 28-41.
Nakamura, K., Ishiyama, K., Sheng, H., Ikai, H., Kanno, T. and Niwano, Y., 2015. Bactericidal activity and mechanism of photoirradiated polyphenols against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 63: 7707-7713.
Navarro, S.A.C., Aldana, A.P.S. and Longas, F.F., 2014. Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of aqueous and hidroalcoholic extracts of granadilla (Passiflora ligularis). Acta Agronómica 63(3): 204-211.
Pereira, A.D., Corrêa, R.X. and Oliveira, A.C., 2015. Molecular genetic diversity and differentiation of populations of ‘somnus’ passion fruit trees (Passiflora setacea DC): implications for conservation and pre-breeding. Biochemical Systematics Ecology 59(1): 12-21.
Saravanan, S. and Parimelazhagan, T., 2014. In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-diabetic properties of polyphenols of Passiflora ligularis Juss. fruit pulp. Food Science and Human Wellness 3(1): 56-64.
Shetty, K., Curtis, O.F., Levin, R.E., Witkowsky, R. and Ang, W., 1995. Prevention of verification associated with in vitro shoot culture of oregano (Origanum vulgare) by Pseudomonas spp. Journal of Plant Physiology 147(1): 447-451.
Sood, A. and Gupta, M., 2015. Extraction process optimization for bioactive compounds in pomegranate peel. Food Bioscience 12: 100-106.
Sujata, V.R., Rathod, V.S. and Yesane, D.P., 2011. Screening of three wild edible fruits for their antioxidant potential. Current Botany 2(1): 48-52.
Vasi?, S.M., Stefanovi?, O.D., Li?ina, B.Z., Radojevi?, I.D. and ?omi?, L.R., 2012. Biological activities of extracts from cultivated granadilla Passiflora alata. Experimental and Clinical Science Journal 11: 208-218.
Xue, J., Davidson, P.M. and Zhong, Q., 2013. Thymol nanoemulsified by whey protein-maltodextrin conjugates: the enhanced emulsifying capacity and antilisterial properties in milk by propylene glycol. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 61: 12720-12726.