Main Article Content
analysis, legislation, mycotoxin
Food chemical contaminants are chemicals that are not normally found in a particular food, their ingredients or the original raw material. Their presence is only acceptable when the levels that they occur at do not compromise public safety and are unavoidable after exercise of best practice. Mycotoxins, the toxic metabolites of certain filamentous fungi, are one group of contaminants and specific legislation, regulating permitted levels of contamination exists for a number of mycotoxin/food combinations. In many cases there is now considerable knowledge not only of the conditions conducive to their formation but also of the mechanisms that need to be in place to prevent or limit their occurrence. In a number of cases this knowledge has been converted into guidelines or other strategies, which both farmers and the food industry have adopted. Assessing levels of compliance and efficacy of these measures is achieved through appropriate audit/inspection and chemical-analytical regimes.
Alldrick A.J. (1996) The effects of processing on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in cereals.Food Additives and Contaminants,13(Suppl.), 27–28.
Alldrick A.J., van Egmond H.P., Solfrizzo M., Ozer H., Gofflot S., Angelov A., Gotcheva V. (2009a) Towards harmonised approaches for mycotoxin analyses: an assessment.quality assurance and Safety of Crop Foods,1, 76–85.
Assured Combinable Crops Producing Trust (2008) Assuredcombinable crops and sugar beet scheme standards2008–2009. Available at http://www.assuredcrops.co.uk/_code/common/item.asp?id=4036673
Battaglia R., Hatzold T., Kroes R. (1996) Guest editorial: conclusions from the workshop on ochratoxin in food,organised by ILSI Europe in Aix-en-Provence (10–12 January 1996).Food Additives and Contamminants,13(Suppl.),1–3.
British Retail Consortium (2008)Global Standard for Food Safety(Revision No. 5). The Stationery Office, London.
Charmley L.L., Trenholm H.L., Prelusky D.B., Rosenberg A.(1995) Economic losses and decontamination.Natural Toxins,3, 199–203.
Codex Alimentarius Commission (2003a) Recommended international code of practice: general principles of food hygiene CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003. Available at http://www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/23/cxp_001e.pdf
Codex Alimentarius Commission (2003b) Code of practice for the prevention and reduction of mycotoxin contamination in cereals, including annexes on ochratoxin a, zearalenone, fumonisins and tricothecenes CAC/RCP 51-2003. Available at http://www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/406/CXC_051e.pdf
Codex Alimentarius Commission (2007) Code of practice for the prevention and reduction of ochratoxin A contamination in wine. CAC/RCP 63-2007. Available at http://www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/10750/CXP_063e.pdf
Commission of the European Communities (2003) CommissionRecommendation of 11 August 2003 on the prevention and reduction of patulin contamination in apple juice and apple juice ingredients in other beverages.Official Journal of the European Union, L203, 54–59.
Commission of the European Communities (2006a) CommissionRegulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs.Official Journal of the European Union,L364,5–24.
Commission of the European Communities (2006b)Commission Recommendation of 17 August 2006 on the prevention and reduction of fusarium toxins in cereals and cereal products (2006/583/EC).Official Journal of the European Union, L234, 35–40.
Commission of the European Communities (2007) CommissionRegulation (EC) No. 1126/2007 of 28 September 2007amending Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs as regardsFusariumtoxins in maize and maize products.Official Journal of the European Union, L255, 13–17.
Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, consumer products and the Environment (2003) Paper for InformationFumonisins in maize: risk assessment. Available at http://cot.food.gov.uk/pdfs/TOX-2003-42.PDF
Confederation of the Food & Drink Industries of the EU (2007)The CIAA Acrylamide ‘Toolbox’ (Revision 11). Available at http://www.ciaa.be/documents/brochures/toolbox%20rev11%20nov%202007final.pdf
Edwards S.G., Pirgozliev S.R., Hare M.C., Jenkinson P. (2001)Quantification of trichothecene-producingFusariumspeciesin harvested grain by competitive PCR to determine efficacies of fungicides against Fusarium head blight of winter wheat. Applied Environmental Microbiology,67, 1575–1580.
European Parliament and Council (1993) Council Regulation(EEC) No. 315/93 of 8 February 1993 laying down community procedures for contaminants in food.official journal of the European Communities, L37, 1–3.
European Parliament and Council (2002) Regulation (EC) No.178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European FoodSafety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety.Official Journal of the European Communities,L31,1–24.
European Parliament and Council (2004) Regulation (EC) No.852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on the hygiene of foodstuffs.Official Journal of the European Union, L226, 3–21.
European Parliament and Council (2005) Regulation (EC) No.396/2005 of the Europen Parliament and Council of 23 February 2005 on maximum levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin and amending CouncilDirective 91/414/EEC.Official Journal of the European Union, L70, 1–16.
Food Standards Agency (2003) Contaminated maize meal withdrawn from sale. Available at http://www.food.gov.uk/news/newsarchive/2003/sep/maize
De Girolamo A., Solfrizzo M., Visconti A. (2001) Effect of processing on fumonisin concentration in corn flakes.Journal of.Food Protection,64, 701–705.
Hill R.A., Blankenship P.D., Cole R.J., Sanders T.H. (1983) Effects of soil moisture and temperature on preharvest invasion of peanuts by the aspergillus flavusgroup and subsequent aflatoxin development.Applied and environmental microbiology,45, 628–633.
Home Grown Cereals Authority (2008) Managing fusarium mycotoxin risk in wheat intended for human food – harvest2008. HGCA Topic Sheet 102/Summer 2008. Available at http://www.hgca.com/document.aspx?fn=load&media_id=4387&publicationID=4514
House J.D., Nyachoti C.D., Abramson D. (2003) Deoxynivalenolremoval from barley intended as swine feed through the use of an abrasive pearling procedure.Journal of Agricultural and food Chemistry,51, 5172–5175.
Jonsson N. (1996)Konserva och lagra spannm ?al p ?ar ?att s ?att!.Jordbrukstekniska Institutet, Uppsala.
Lepschy v.G., Suess A. (1996) Verteilung des Trichothecen-mykotoxins Deoxynivalenol bei der Vermahlung von Weizen.Getreide,50, 340–342.
Lopez-Garcia R., Augusto Mallmann C., Pineiro M. (2008)Design and implementation of an integrated management system for ochratoxin A in the coffee production chain.food additives and Contaminants,25, 231–240.
Miller J.D. (1995) Fungi and mycotoxins in grain.Journal of stored Products Research,31, 1–16.
Poms R.E., Alldrick A., Grazina J., Ermolli M., Binder E.-M., Reynolds S., Goekmen V., Haas-Lauterbach S. (2009) Testing for food safety. In: Applications of Cereal, Flour and DoughTestingeds Cauvain S.P., Young L.S. DE Stech Publications Inc, Lancaster, PA, 237–290.
Scott P.M., Kanhere S.R., Lau P.Y., Dexter J.E., Greenhalgh R.(1983) Effects of experimental flour milling and bread baking on retention of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in hard red spring wheat.Cereal Chemistry,60, 421–426.
Tkachuk R., Dexter J.E., Tipples K.H., Nowicki T.W. (1991)Removal by specific gravity table of tombstone kernels and associated trichothecenes from wheat infected with fusarium head blight. Cereal Chemistry,68, 428–431.
Van der Fels-Klerx H.J., Kandhai M.C., Booy C.J.H. (2008) A conceptual model for identification of emerging risks, applied to mycotoxins in wheat-based supply chains. World MycotoxinJournal,1, 13–22.
Visconti A., Haidukowski E.M., Pascale M., Silvestri M. (2004)Reduction of deoxynivalenol during durum wheat processing and spaghetti cooking.Toxicology Letters,153, 181–189.
Visconti A., Perrone G., Cozzi G., Solfrizzo M. (2008) Managingochratoxin A in the grape-wine food chain.Food Additives and contaminants,25, 193–202.
Weather Innovations Incorporated (2008) Available at http://www.weatherinnovations.com/DONcast.cfm