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germination, pigeon pea, functionality, foaming, emulsifying, protein solubility
Germination is a natural low-cost bioprocessing technique that can be used to enhance the functionality of food grains. The present study evaluates the effect of germination time and temperature on the functional characteristics and protein solubility of germinated pigeon pea flour. Germinated pigeon pea flour exhibited a reduction in bulk density, water absorption and swelling power, as well as an enhanced gelling consistency and oil absorption capacity in comparison to raw flour due to enzymatic modification of starch and proteins. Germination for 48 h at 35 °C decreased the paste clarity of processed flour, while synereis of flour was increased. Prolonged germination time positively increased the protein solubility and least gelation concentration of pigeon pea flour. Raw flour showed the lowest emulsion and foaming properties, while an increase in germination conditions increased the emulsifying and foaming properties of the flour.
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