Main Article Content
dried apricots, SO2, amino acids, storage
The profile and content of amino acid in dried apricots containing various SO2 concentrations (0, 451, 832, 2,112 and 3,241 mg SO2/kg) were determined during storage at 4, 20 and 30 °C for 379 days. Major amino acid was aspartic acid (2,872-5,692 g/kg dw), followed by glutamic acid (695-989 g/kg dw), glycine (90-144 g/kg dw), alanine (16-35 g/kg dw) and valine (17-29 g/kg dw). Good correlation (r=0.712) was found between SO2 concentration and aspartic acid content. SO2 led to the reduction in the synthesis of glutamic acid, glycine, alanine and valine before storage. The highest stabilities of amino acids during storage were found in the samples containing 451 mg SO2/kg. Reduction rates for aspartic and glutamic acids at 30 °C were generally slower than those at 20 °C. As a result of this finding, the main reason for the reductions in aspartic and glutamic acids in dried apricots could not be due to Maillard reaction. Thus, the food additive to be used in place of SO2 to prevent browning in dried apricots must slow down the synthesis of glycine, alanine and valine.
Babsky, N.E., Toribio, J.L. and Lozano, J.E., 1986. Influence of storage on the composition of clarified apple juice concentrate. Journal of Food Science 51: 564-567.
Birolo, L., Tutino, M.L., Fontanella, B., Gerday, C., Mainolfi, K., Pascarella, S. and Marino, G., 2000. Aspartate aminotransferase from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC 125. European Journal of Biochemistry 267: 2790-2802.
Buedo, A.P., Elustondo, M.P.and Urbicain, M.J., 2000. Amino acid loss in peach juice concentrate during storage. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 1: 281-288.
Clijster, H., De Proft, M., Marcelle, R. and Van Poucke, M., 2012. Biochemical and physiological aspects of ethylene production in lower and higher plants. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 368 pp.
Costantini, V., Bellincontro, A., De Santis, D., Botondi, R. and Mencarelli, F., 2006. Metabolic changes of Malvasia grapes for wine production during postharvest drying. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54: 3334-3340.
Hac?sefero?ullar?, H., Gezer, I., Özcan, M.M. and Asma, B.M., 2007. Post-harvest chemical and physical-mechanical properties of some apricot varieties cultivated in Turkey. Journal of Food Engineering 79: 364-373.
Hansen, M.E., Sørensen, H. and Cantwell, M., 2001. Changes in acetaldehyde, ethanol and amino acid concentrations in broccoli florets during air and controlled atmosphere storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology 22: 227-237.
Hamzao?lu, F., Türky?lmaz, M. and Özkan, M., 2018. Effect of SO2 on sugars, indicators of maillard reaction and browning in dried apricots during storage. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 98: 4988-4999.
Hasse, D., Mikkat, S., Thrun, H.A., Hagemann, M. and Bauwe, H., 2007. Properties of recombinant glycine decarboxylase P- and H-protein subunits from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. FEBS Letters 581: 1297-1301.
Hayatsu, H., 1976. Bisulfite modification of nucleic acids and their constituents. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology 16: 75-124.
Hermosin, I., Chicon, R.M. and Cabezudo, M.D., 2003. Free amino acid composition and botanical origin of honey. Food Chemistry 83: 263-268.
Hwang, I.G., Kim, H.Y., Woo, K.S., Lee, J. and Jeong, H.S., 2011. Biological activities of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in a sugar-amino acid model system. Food Chemistry 126: 221-227.
Iwaniak, A., Minkiewicz, P., Darewicz, M., Sieniawski, K. and Starowicz, P., 2016. BIOPEP database of sensory peptides and amino acids. Food Research International 85: 155-161.
Jager, H. and Grill, D., 1975. Einfluss von SO2 und HF auf Amino-sauren der Fichte (Picea abies [L.j Karsten). European Journal of Plant Pathology 5: 279-286.
Karni-Katsadimas, I., Dimitropoulos, C. and Evangelopoulos, A.E., 1969. Substrate induced changes in the reactivity of the sulfhydryl groups of aspartate transaminase. European Journal of Biochemistry 8: 50-54.
Márquez, A.J., Serra, M.A. and Vega, J.M., 1987. Characterization of a light-dependent glutamate synthase activity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Photosynthesis Research 12: 73-81.
Malhotra, S.S. and Sarkar, S.K., 1979. Effects of sulphur dioxide on sugar and free amino acid content of pine seedlings. Physiologia plantarum 47: 223-228.
Michuda, C.M. and Martinez-Carrion, M., 1970. The isozymes of glutamate-aspartate transaminase mechanism of inhibition by dicarboxylic acids. Journal of Biological Chemistry 245: 262-269.
Pashkoulov, D., 1993. Isozyme variation among the apricot cultivars. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment 7: 59-61.
Peiser, G.D. and Yang, S.F., 1979. Ethylene and ethane production from sulfur dioxide-injured plants. Plant Physiology 63: 142-145.
Salur-Can, A., Türky?lmaz, M. and Özkan, M., 2017. Effects of sulfur dioxide concentration on organic acids and ?-carotene in dried apricots during storage. Food Chemistry 221: 412-421.
Singh, S.N., Yunus, M. and Singh, N., 1990. Effect of sodium metabisulphite on chlorophyll, protein and nitrate reductase activity of tomato leaves. Science of the Total Environment 91: 269-274.
Sochor, J., Skutkova, H., Babula, P., Zitka, O., Cernei, N., Rop, O., Krska, B., Adam, V., Provaznik, I. and Kizek, R., 2011. Mathematical evaluation of the amino acid and polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of fruits from different apricot cultivars. Molecules 16: 7428-7457.
Türky?lmaz, M., Ta??, ?. and Özkan, M., 2013. Changes in chemical and microbial qualities of dried apricots containing sulphur dioxide at different levels during storage. Food and Bioprocess Technology 6: 1526-1538.
Türky?lmaz, M., Özkan, M. and Güzel, N., 2014. Loss of sulfur dioxide and changes in some chemical properties of Malatya apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) during sulfuring and drying. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94: 2488-2496.
Uiroga, C., Imperial, S., Busquets, M. and Cortes, A., 1991. Comparison of soma of the properties of the holoenzymes and apoenzymes of the molecular forms of chicken liver cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase. Biochemical Society Transaction 19: 74S.
Voi, A.L., Impembo, M., Fasanaro, G. and Castaldo, D., 1995. Chemical characterization of apricot puree. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 8: 78-85.
Waldmann, G., Cook, P.F. and Schnackerz, K.D. 2005. Purification and properties of ?-alanine synthase from calf liver. Protein and peptide letters 12: 69-73.
Wilson, D.G., King, K.W. and Burris, R.H., 1954. Transamination reactions in plants. Journal of Biological Chemistry 208: 863-874.
Zwoch, I., Knorre, U. and Schaub, H., 1990. Influence of SO2 and O3, singly or in combination, on ethylene synthesis in sunflower. Environmental and Experimental Botany 30: 193-205.