Residue levels of pesticides in nuts and risk assessment for consumers

Main Article Content

S. Aydin
M. Ulvi


nuts, pesticide, residue, risk assessment


The residue levels of 227 pesticides were analyzed in nuts (dried figs, dried apricots, raisins, walnuts, pistachios, hazelnuts, almonds, peanuts, dates, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, white chickpeas and yellow chickpeas). The extraction of the samples was performed by using QuEChERS method, and the residue analyses were performed with LCMS/MS, GC-MS, GC-MS/MS. The results were evaluated according to the regulations of European Union and Turkish Food Codex (TFC), and a risk assessment for consumers was evaluated. At least one type of pesticide residue was detected in 29% of the samples. Thiacloprid in 4 pistachio and imidacloprid in 3 pumpkin seed, exceeded the maximum residue limit value given in the TFC. Trifluralin which is located in the list of prohibitted pesticides was detected in 9 pumpkin seed samples. The pesticides of chlorpyriphos, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl were determined to pose an acute and chronic risk for children and adults. The target hazard quotient for all of the detected pesticides was calculated as <1. The Hazard Index value was determined as 0.264 for adults and 0.156 for children. When the amount of pesticide that people have with the consumption of other foodstuffs is also taken into consideration, people could be exposed to both acute and chronic health risks.

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