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candies, chocolates, daily intakes, margin of exposure, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Nigeria
The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 29 commercial brands of candies and chocolates commonly consumed in Nigeria with a view to providing information on the risks associated with the consumption of these products. The measurements were performed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after hexane/dichloromethane extraction and clean-up. The concentrations of the ?16 PAHs in the candies and chocolates were in the range of 1.09-149.46 ?g/kg and 0.95-222.62 ?g/kg, respectively. The profiles of PAHs in these brands of candies and chocolates indicate dominance of low molecular weight PAHs (3- and 4-ring) over high molecular weight PAHs (5- and 6-ring). In this study, three samples of chocolate had PAH4 (benzo(a)anthracene + benzo(b) fluoranthene + benzo(a)pyrene + chrysene) concentrations above the 35 ?g/kg PAH4 limit in cocoa butter stipulated by European Commission Regulation no. 835/2011.
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